this is outline
Problem-focused Coping Strategies.
Emotion-focused Coping Strategies.
Approach Style of Coping.
Avoidance Style of Coping.
Factors that Influence Coping Effectiveness
Sex of athlete.
Match between stressor and coping strategy.
Utilizing an approach coping strategy.
Coping Strategies Used by Elite Athletes
Elite athletes tend to use an approach style of coping, with the majority of the strategies being problem or action focused.
The vast majority of coping strategies may be categorized under the heading of psychological training, physical training, strategizing, and somatic relaxation.
Self-talk as an intervention
The When and Where of Self-Talk
The What of Self-talk (Content)
The structure of self-talk describes the use of cue words, phrases, and sentences.
The use of task instruction is usually specific as opposed to general in nature.
Categories of self-talk are of three types.
Categories of Self-talk
Task specific statements relating to technique.
Encouragement and effort.
Mood words (“hard” “blast” “go”)
To be effective, self-talk must be:
Brief and phonetically simple.
Logically associated with the skill.
Compatible with the sequential timing of the task to be performed.
The Why of Self-talk
The why of self-talk describes its role and function.
The two main functions or components are:
– Cognitive component
– Motivational component
Cognitive Component of Self-talk
Assist in skill development.
Specific Uses (Why) of Self-talk
Building and developing self-efficacy
Creating and changing mood
Focusing attention or concentration
Relaxation strategies used in sport
Important component of all relaxation techniques.
Types of Breathing.
– Chest breathing
– Abdominal breathing
Tense a muscle before relaxing it.
Systematic tensing and relaxing of all muscles, beginning with upper limbs.
After training, the relaxation response can be elicited in a matter of minutes.
–effect on relaxation response? athletic performance?
Self statements to achieve relaxation:
1. Heaviness in arms and legs.
2. Warmth in arms and legs.
3. Warmth in chest and reduced heart rate.
4. Calm and relaxed breathing.
5. Warmth in the solar plexus area.
6. Sensation of coolness on forehead.
COMPONENT 2: imagery
COMPONENT 3: specific themes
—-effect on relaxation response? athletic performance?
Athlete uncritically focuses attention on a single thought, sound or object.
Use of a mental device or “mantra.”
Biofeedback training uses instruments to help people control responses of the autonomic nervous system.
Arousal Energizing Strategies for Sport
Categories of Energizing Strategies
Team Energizing Strategies.
Individual Self-Energizing Strategies.
Team Energizing Strategies
Team Goal Setting
Publicity and News Coverage
Coach, Athlete, and Parent Interaction
Immediate/Individual Self-Energizing Strategies
Individual Goal Setting
this is the important
Chapter 9 objectives
• Explain coping and stress management
• List, describe and apply coping strategies and coping styles
• Explain the characteristics, components, and types of self-talk
• Describe progressive relaxation, autogenic training, meditation, and biofeedback training, and report their levels of effectiveness in inducing the relaxation response and in enhancing sport performance
• List and define energizing strategies used by individuals and teams