Literature Review

Well-Developed Literature Review includes relevant citations from a variety of scholarly sources, including journals, periodicals, and Internet sources (well-qualified/well-validated).The title of the paper ” Cyber Security”

  • The number, type, quality, and relevance of the References Cited in a Literature Review are a direct reflection of the level of scholarly effort the author has invested in the preliminary research and analysis of his or her selected topic.
  • The Goal should be to produce a scholarly Literature Review that details and discusses the empirical and research-based literature around the selected topic.

The Reference List will include a minimum of ten (10) Scholarly Research Literature Sources, which will include a minimum of:

    • Eight (8) scholarly periodical articles (includes articles retrieved from on-line journals or articles retrieved from on-line databases such as EBSCOhost)
    • Two (2) scholarly internet sources, such as government, professional society, or college/university web sites (excludes articles or other materials retrieved from online journals or online databases such as EBSCOhost)
      • “Scholarly sources” refers to literature that is based upon recognized research methodologies that included the study of published prior research studies, as well as the work of recognized leading authors within a given field of study.
      • In contrast, Non-Scholarly Literature is based primarily upon the opinions, conjecture, presumptions, and speculation of the author(s).
      • The number and type of references cited in a given Literature Review are largely dependent on the topic being researched and the depth and rigor with which it has been researched

The information contained in your reference list will eventually become part of the References for the Concept Paper – Second Edition.

Development of the Literature Review will include the following elements:

  • The Introduction of the Literature Topic (Level 1 Heading)
    • Focus and Purpose of the paper
  • The Purpose of the Literature Review (Level 2 Heading)
    A well-done Literature Review will have at least three Major sections
      • Should be inclusive and brief
      • This section is intended to help describe the purpose of the literature review to the reader
  • Search Strategy and Criteria for Inclusion (Level 2 Heading)
    • Information about search engines, databases, and websites and information about keywords, date ranges, specific researches used
  • Organization of Literature Review (Level 2 Heading)
    • Information about How the Literature Review is Organized
    • Use this section to help the reader understand your literature search process.
      • Where did you search?
      • What did you search for?
      • What keywords did you use?
      • What websites did you explore?
  • Title of Your First Section (Level 1 Heading)
    A well-done Literature Review will have Several sub-sections
    • Describe details about your findings
    • Title of Your Sub-Sections (Level 2 Headings)
      • How and why the review is designed
  • Summary (Level 1 Heading)
    • Includes what was learned from the review
    • Major points from the findings
    • Discuss the common points and conflicting points
    • What did you learn after reading, synthesizing and writing about the literature
  • References (Level 1 Heading)

The Literature Review should clearly and concisely provide details on how the selected literature ties into and supports your Problem Statement Summary.

In-text Citations and References should be complete and formatted correctly according to APA guidelines.

The information contained in this Literature Review will become a large and substantial section of the Concept Paper – Second Edition.

The Literature Review and Reference List will comply with the following general formatting requirements:

  • Typed using a 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Double-spaced throughout the entire paper (including cover page and reference section)
  • Use a one-inch margin
  • Use flush-left justification throughout the paper unless specifically directed otherwise in the APA Manual
  • Page header will include your title and page numbers (12-point Times New Roman font)
  • Use of appropriate section and sub-section headings are required throughout the entire paper
  • Title/cover page will include the working title of your research study/project, your name, the course name, the university name, and the date (Month Day, Year, e.g. February 15, 2019)
  • The title/cover page and reference pages do not count/are not included in the minimum/maximum page lengths.



Literature Review

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW(6-8 pages MINIMUM – this does not include the cover, abstract, or references pages)In the fourth section of your report, you should include information about the case study that would be helpful in working with this family. Please include information from: – Primary sources, secondary sources, professional literature, office reports, practice literature, or other information as applicable. You must include at least 6 peer reviewed and/or scholarly articles in your paper. Please use the library at Post or the virtual library as necessary. Online sources are acceptable but Wikipedia is not allowed as it is not an empirically validated source. Empirically validated sources are scholarly journals or sources that are research based. For example, People magazine and the New York Times are not considered scholarly or peer reviewed.
  2. – Please provide information that supports the 1) need for an action research project for this case and 2) information to support any parts of the case study in regard to diagnosis or treatment models, etc.
  3. – If your literature review involves statistical and numerical data, please remember to provide any relevant occurrences, comparisons, trends/history, central tendencies, distribution scores, or correlations necessary
  4. – Examples could be: What does the research say about single parent homes and violence rates? What does the research say about truancy and dropout rates? What does the research say about cultural factors in regard to spanking? Perhaps asking yourself a “question” about the case could help foster areas to include in the literature review.
  5. – Please utilize the syllabus for this course to better understand the exact instructions for this written assignment.
  6. – Assignments should be written in the format of the most current edition of the APA manual.
  7. – Each paper must be submitted via Blackboard and emailed copies will not be accepted.
    – Policies in regard to turning work in late also apply to these assignments.
  8. – Each paper must be double spaced with size 12 Times New Roman font and 1 inch margins on all sides. Please use complete sentences, appropriate grammar, spelling, and references.
    – You will also be required to use in-text references in your work in accordance with APA style to avoid plagiarism. Information to help with your writing is provided under the APA resources section of the course information tab.
  9. – Plagiarism detection software will be used to scan each paper and any paper that is determined to have academic integrity issues will earn a score of 0 automatically. In preparing your submissions, please avoid using any information that you have previously submitted for credit in this or any other course for credit (self-plagiarism). This is not allowable according to the university and APA. Please see the information on the course information section of the course for more detailed information.


Literature Review

Literature Review

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read the Ryder, Ban, & Chentsova-Dutton (2011) “Towards a Cultural-Clinical Psychology,”

American Psychological Association (2014) “Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology,”

Hage, et al. (2007) “Walking the Talk: Implementing the Prevention Guidelines and Transforming the Profession of Psychology,”

Rivera-Mosquera, et al. (2007) “Prevention Activities in Professional Psychology: A Reaction to the Prevention Guidelines” articles.

Clinical and counseling psychology is a dynamic field that is constantly evolving and striving toward better treatment options and modalities. In this literature review, you will explore and integrate psychological research into a literature review, addressing current trends in three major areas of clinical and counseling psychology: assessment, clinical work, and prevention.

In your review, include the following headings, and address the required content.

Support this section with information from the Ryder et al. (2011) article “Towards a Cultural-Clinical Psychology” and at least one additional peer-reviewed article from the University of Arizona Global Campus Library.

  • Compare the assessments currently in use by clinical and counseling psychologists.
  • Explain the trend towards cultural-clinical psychology and the suitability of clinical assessments with diverse clients.

Clinical work
Support this section using a minimum of three peer-reviewed articles from the University of Arizona Global Campus Library. The recommended articles for this week may be useful in generating your response.

  • Compare and contrast technical eclecticism, assimilative integration and theoretical integration.
  • Provide a historical context and identify the major theorists for each perspective.
  • Assess the trends in psychotherapy integration.
  • List three pros and cons for each perspective, sharing which perspective most closely aligns with your own.
  • Analyze the major trends in psychology and explain the connection between evidenced-based practices and psychotherapy integration.

Review the “Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology” (American Psychological Association, 2014), and support this section with information from the Hage, et al. (2007) “Walking the Talk: Implementing the Prevention Guidelines and Transforming the Profession of Psychology,” and Rivera-Mosquera, et al. (2007) “Prevention Activities in Professional Psychology: A Reaction to the Prevention Guidelines” articles.

  • Describe general prevention strategies implemented by clinical and counseling psychologists at the micro, meso, exo, and macro levels.

The Literature Review

  • Must be 7 to 10 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style 7 as outlined.
  • Must use at least seven peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text.


Literature Review

Once you have completed the research proposal/exploratory annotated bibliography assignment and met for a conference, you are ready to write the first draft of your literature review.


Sources: No fewer than eight (8) highly credible sources. Four of these sources must be from scholarly sources (journals or monograph chapters). Note that scholarly sources do not include the book reviews, editorials, and introductions in scholarly journals, nor do they include textbooks or dissertation abstracts. You may exceed eight sources so long as four of your total are scholarly ones.

Your remaining four sources may come from primary or secondary sources, such as professional/trade publications, government sources, major newspapers, and other credible media outlets.

The sources you choose should work to answer your research question and fulfill the purpose for your literature review.

Documentation Style: Use the style for your field of study. Most likely, this will be APA or MLA.

Audience: While most literature reviews are written for academic audiences, your review must further identify which audience in academia would be most interested in your work. Additionally, some literature reviews are written for a professional audience.

Regardless of the audience you choose, a literature review is a formal piece of writing, so use formal diction in writing it. Avoid contractions and personal pronouns.

Synthesis: The synthesis is the centerpiece of a literature review, and it can only happen successfully if you read your sources carefully. Take notes as you read, being mindful of key terms, the currency of the source, main claims, research methods used, and where you see possible controversies emerging.

To synthesize, begin by grouping various sources according to how they are similar and different. As you do so, be mindful of why these similarities and differences exist. Think about how the evidence you found in your sources fits together like pieces of a puzzle that yield a larger picture of the issue so that you can reach some tentative conclusions about them and discuss those implications.

Be Careful About Unintentional Plagiarism: Avoid direct quotations and use summary and paraphrase instead. This strategy can make certain you have read your sources carefully and understand their key points.

The reader should have no difficulty recognizing where your idea ends and the source’s begins. Use an introductory lead-in (signaling phrase) and an in-text citation to mark the boundaries between your ideas and those of your source.


Literature Review

Literature Review

This assignment is the second component of your course project. In Unit 4, you described the graphic displays and measurement that will be used to make sense of the behavioral data available in your case study. Although measurement and graphic displays can reveal whether, when, and how much behavior has changed, they alone cannot reveal what caused the behavior change.

This assignment will give you the chance to explore and uncover a wide range of theoretical underpinnings necessary for developing a more complete understanding of the behavioral research that builds the foundational knowledge necessary to analyze ABA case studies and real-life scenarios. Please refer to What Is the Literature Review? page (linked in the resources) for a refresher on how to be a skilled researcher.

For this assignment, you will be assessed on your understanding of the following course competencies:

  • Design research-based interventions for individual cases based on the principles of applied behavior analysis.
  • Communicate in a manner that is scholarly and consistent with expectations for professionals in the field of psychology.

How to Organize Your Paper

Your paper will be divided in two parts. Use the following subheadings in your paper and format your subheadings in current APA style.


In one paragraph, provide an overview of your research plan. At a minimum, it must restate the following from the Unit 2 assignment:

  1. Behavioral challenge and outcome criteria identified.
  2. Social significance of the target behavior and outcome criteria in your case study.
Theoretical Underpinnings

This section (6–8 pages) will consist of your evaluation of the literature you compiled. In this evaluation, you will:

  1. Identify relevant ABA concepts, principles, and methods for behavioral challenges in research.
  2. Compare theoretical underpinnings of the chosen research related to the case study.
  3. Evaluate research studies to distinguish purpose, benefits, strengths, and weaknesses in ABA.

Assignment Requirements

Your assignment should meet the following requirements:

  • Written communication: Should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • APA 7 formatting: References and citations are formatted according to current APA 7 style guidelines.
  • Identify relevant applied behavior analysis concepts, principles, and methods for behavioral challenges in research.
  • Compare theoretical underpinnings of the chosen research.
  • Evaluate research studies to distinguish purpose, benefits, strengths, and weaknesses in applied behavior analysis.
  • Resources: 10–12 scholarly or professional resources.
  • Length: 8–10 double-spaced pages, excluding title page and list of references.
  • Font and font-size: Times New Roman, 12-point.

I’ve attached the unit 2 assignment, the targeted bx is physical aggression. Unit 4 research hasn’t been yet, but once it has I will send that over, but honestly, the research you do/find will be better! Let me know if you have any questions for I am willing and able to help.


literature review

Choose two of the three texts you analyzed last week (the third will be a suggestion for further reading) and write literature review paragraphs for each text. Each body paragraph should be at least eight sentences long. Follow steps A-C for each text separately.


– Because I could not stop for Death – (479) BY E M I LY D I C K I N S O N (… )

– The Eagle BY A L F R E D, LO R D T E N N YS O N (… )


  1. Topic Sentence: Note the text title, author, time period, and genre of the text that you will review.
  2. Claim: Identify a mode (also known as a pattern or theme, though different from the definition of theme that is one of your literary terms) you found in the text that relates to your research question.
    1. Comparison and Contrast (Does the text focus on two or more things to compare and contrast?)
    2. Cause and Effect (Does the text discuss how one or some things led to another?)
    3. Problem and Solution (Does the text identify an issue and remedy?)
    4. Process (Does the text explain how something is done or came to be?)
    5. Description (Does the text describe a person, place, or thing/experience?)
    6. Illustration/Exemplification (Does the text provide illustrations of a topic, typically explaining something that is unknown?)
    7. Classification (Does the text designate shared as well as distinct qualities or characteristics?)
    8. Narrative (Does the text have compelling plot points?)
    9. Definition (Does the text define complex theories or ideas?)
  3. Evidence: Elaborate on the themes/patterns by objectively sharing what moments from the text demonstrate the claim mode you chose. In other words, what’s there/what’s happening in the text objectively that relates to your research question? You must share more than one example of that theme/pattern/mode.
    1. Comparison and Contrast (ex: The lives of two sisters on very different paths are depicted over a decade.)
    2. Cause and Effect (The main character’s choice to run away from home resulted in a number of challenging experiences.)
    3. Problem and Solution (The twins knew their father should not marry the evil stepmother, so they recreated the father and birth mother’s first date to help them fall back in love again and remarry.)
    4. Process (The queen showed her people how to rule benevolently by making sure the townspeople had a democratic voice in all the politics.)
    5. Description (Each of the four seasons were depicted by what the environment looked like and how people conducted themselves in each season.)
    6. Illustration/Exemplification (The text illustrated what it was like to return to being a civilian after being at war and having post-traumatic stress disorder.)
    7. Classification and Division (Each of the characters were discussed in relation to what family they were part of but further identified by their individual qualities that sometimes strained their relationship with family members.)
    8. Narrative (The climax was heightened by some characters not knowing that tragedy was headed their way.)
    9. Definition (A practical approach to reparations was framed by considering what has already been done and what is possible within the financial constraints of the U.S. government.)
  4. Discussion: Subjectively assert your own theories about the text that relate to your research question.
    1. Debates: What in the text do you not agree with or do you find problematic and why?
    2. Gaps: What do you think is missing from the text that would help address your research question, and what questions might the text have left unanswered?

      With the third text you analyzed (the text you didn’t write a literature review for), write 2-3 sentences that suggest why the text might be good for further study by your audience in answering your research question (and any relevant limitations they might want to consider when examining the text)? In 2-3, post your research question and one or two ways you think the genre addresses it?

      My research question is: What is postmodernism and why is it important to understand it?
      Genre: Postmodernism


Literature Review

Conduct a literature review (see Bem, 2016). You will review and summarize relevant theory and research in order to defend a particular position (your thesis). The topic of your literature review might come from the following list, or you may identify a different area of interest. However, if you choose something other than the options below, you must obtain permission from your instructor prior to writing/submitting the paper. It is up to the instructor’s discretion to allow/disallow alternative topics. Here are some ideas you might choose to explore:

  • Accuracy of Proverbs
    • Example: “Don’t judge a book by its cover” or “Beauty is a good letter of introduction”? In other words, what can one conclude based on appearance alone?
    • Example: “Absence makes the heart grow fonder” or “Out of sight, out of mind”? In other words, do long distances or extended amounts of time strengthen relationship ties, or weaken them?
    • Example: “Birds of a feather flock together” or “Opposites attract”? In other words, are people attracted to similar or dissimilar others?
  • Impact of Titles/Labels
    • Example: How do team mascots (such as the Redskins or Braves) impact Native Americans (self-esteem, stereotype threat, etc.)?
    • Example: How do labels (such as smart/stupid, crazy or criminal, etc.) impact people’s mental processes and behaviors?
  • Altruism
    • Example: Does true altruism exist? What motivates people to help?
  • Explanatory Style
    • Example: Do optimists experience better life outcomes than pessimists?
  • Persuasive Appeals
    • Example: How do political campaigns utilize various techniques?
  • Self-esteem
    • Example: Is there a dark side? Can one be too confident?
  • School Size
    • Example: Do students fare better in big schools or small schools? Why?
  • Reactance
    • Example: What is the theory behind “reverse psychology”?
  • Gender Differences
    • Example: in aggression, sex, etc.
  • A Form of Prejudice
    • Example: fat prejudice, racial prejudice, etc.
  • Psychology and the Law
    • Example: jury behavior, etc.
  • Other: Must be approved by your instructor in advance!

The Final Paper

  • Must be at least 5 to 10 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA styleas outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • A header
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must utilize academic voice.
  • Must address the topic with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms the thesis.
  • Must use at least five peer-reviewed scholarly sources. Additional scholarly sources are encouraged.
    • Be sure to integrate your researchsmoothly rather than simply inserting it.
    • In general, paraphrase material rather than using direct quotes.
    • The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined here and here.
  • Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style.