Nova Southeastern University

1-Omar, thanks for contributing to this week’s discussion; your assessment of this week’s discussion content is correct. According to Hufbauer et al. (2005), critics of NAFTA postulate that partners within the agreement have missed opportunities and misplaced priorities. The authors further mention that some of these critics had put forward a plan that is a decade-year-old during the NAFTA ratification debate to bolster their argument, even before the NAFTA pact was concluded. They serve as a lightning rod by attacking labor and environmental issues against trade liberalization within Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.

One of the primary contentions of critic’s debates, as documented by Hufbauer et al. (2005), is that trade liberalization among Mexico and Canada would displace and relocate U.S. workers, which in turn would suppress real wages. Such an argument was baseless without any scientific data to shore up these critical claims, echoed throughout the academic community noted in Hufbauer et al. (2005). Despite the assurance from the academic community, the dispute still resonated throughout the public mediums across the U.S. To fuel the fire to the ongoing debate, critics use higher levels of illegal immigration, slow progress on environmental problems, slow income disparities (i.e., within Mexico), weak growth in wages, and illegal trafficking of drugs to bolster their argument against NAFTA. Although some of these issues were a correlation of economic integration within the formation of NATFA, critics could use it to their advantage to formulate an argument against NAFTA.

Hufbauer et al. (2005) also argued that, since the integration of these three economies over the last three decades, NAFTA’s real GDP growth from 1994 to 2003 has risen to 3.6 percent for Canada, 3.3 percent in the U.S. and Mexico 2.7 percent (despite the recession of 1995). Thus, these three economies grew faster than their counterparts within the OECD member states. Although Mexico’s growth was insufficient to address its long economic challenges, it was a step in the right direction for the Mexican economy. In addition, Hufbauer et al.’s (2005) data show that, since integrating these three economies, interregional merchandise trade has doubled; US FDI in Canada and Mexico increased faster. Based on your assessments of these economies, how the contribution of NAFTA, helped the economy of Mexico with interregional trade?


Hufbauer, G.C., Schott, J.J., Clark, D. (2005) NAFTA Revisited: Achievements and Challenges, Peterson Institute for International Economics, ProQuest eBook Central,

2-The United States and Canada started an Auto free trade agreement in 1965, In 1988 both countries began negotiation in regards to eliminating tariff and nontariff barriers, which it resulted in an economic growth of 5% by 1998, and lots of jobs creation among both borders, Furthermore, the US Government and Canadian Government joined forces with Mexico and signed the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) back in 1994. This NAFTA will reduce help reduce prices of various commodities to US consumers and increase competition. Ever since NAFTA Mexico’s economy grew and Mexicans increased their living standards. Additionally, the United States launched the Enterprise for the American Initiative (EAI), which led to the formation of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) in 1998, whose ultimate goal is hemispheric free trade among the 34 democratic countries of North and South America. Negotiations are proving to be difficult and are not expected to succeed anytime soon. Since 2001, the United States began a journey signing a free trade agreements (FTAs) with Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Peru, and Singapore. Also operational is the United States-Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (US-DR-CAFTA) with Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, besides the Dominican Republic. Ratified in 2001 was the U.S. FTA with Korea, Panama, and Colombia. The United States is negotiating still other FTAs with other countries. In recent years, the EU and other countries have also been very active in signing FTAs. The EU has FTAs with Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey as part of an effort to create a Euro Mediterranean Free Trade Area (EMFTA). The EU also has FTAs with Norway and Switzerland; South Africa and South Korea; Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru; and with 12 other smaller nations, and is negotiating an FTA with Mercosur and the Gulf Cooperation Council (which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates). Japan has FTAs with ASEAN, India, Mexico, and Switzerland and is negotiating with still other countries. Canada has FTAs with the United States and Mexico (NAFTA) and the European Free Trade Association (EFA), as well as with Israel, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Peru; and it is negotiating with other countries as well. By 2009, there were nearly 300 FTAs from just about 50 in 1990. Today, most countries belong to multiple FTAs. This spaghetti-bowl proliferation of bilateral and regional FTAs is regarded by some as a stumbling block to a freer multilateral trading system (Salvatore, 2013). The United States understands that trading with other countries makes the world flat a makes the US economy stronger than ever and bring wealth to nations and better the quality of living for millions.


Salvatore, D. (2013). In International economics (pp. 313–315). essay, John Wiley & Sons.

3-NAFTA was disputable when previously proposed, generally in light of the fact that it was the first FTA including two affluent, created nations and a creating nation. The political discussion encompassing the understanding was troublesome with defenders contending that the arrangement would help create a large number of occupations and diminish pay divergence in the district, while adversaries cautioned that the arrangement would cause enormous employment misfortunes in the United States as organizations moved creation to Mexico to bring down expenses. Actually, NAFTA didn’t cause the immense activity misfortunes dreaded by the pundits or the enormous monetary additions anticipated by allies. The net in general impact of NAFTA on the U.S. economy seems to have been generally unassuming, essentially in light of the fact that exchange with Canada and Mexico represents a little level of U.S. Gross domestic product. Nonetheless, there were specialist and firm modification costs as the three nations acclimated to more open exchange and speculation (Leonard & Caporal, 2017).

The rising number of respective and provincial economic alliance all through the world and the rising presence of China in Latin America could have suggestions for U.S. exchange strategy with its NAFTA accomplices. A few defenders of open and decides based exchange fight that keeping up NAFTA or extending monetary relations with Canada and Mexico will help advance a typical exchange plan with shared qualities and create financial development. A few adversaries contend that the arrangement has caused specialist uprooting, and renegotiation could bring on additional activity misfortunes

One of the more disputable parts of NAFTA is identified with the agrarian area in Mexico and the recognition that NAFTA has caused a higher measure of Mexican laborer removal in this segment than in other financial segments. Numerous pundits of NAFTA state that the arrangement prompted an enormous number of occupation misfortunes in Mexican horticulture, particularly in the corn division. One examination appraises these misfortunes to have been more than 1 million lost positions in corn creation somewhere in the range of 1991 and 2000. Be that as it may, while a portion of the adjustments in the farming part are an immediate consequence of NAFTA as Mexico imported more lower-valued items from the United States, a considerable lot of the progressions can be credited to Mexico’s one-sided horticultural change measures during the 1980s and mid 1990s (Millward, 2016). Most homegrown change measures comprised of privatization endeavors and brought about expanded rivalry. Measures included taking out state endeavors identified with agribusiness and eliminating staple value underpins and subsidies. These changes corresponded with NAFTA dealings and proceeded past the execution of NAFTA in 1994. The one-sided changes in the farming part make it hard to isolate those impacts from the impacts of NAFTA.


Millward, D. (2016, Apr 04). US candidates take aim at ‘toxic’ free trade deal: The controversial nafta treat is polarising voters and has far-reaching implications for business, writes david millward. The Daily Telegraph Retrieved from…

Leonard, J., & Caporal, J. (2017). USTR to propose labor, IP text, but hold off on most controversial ideas at third NAFTA round. Inside US Trade Daily Report, Retrieved from…


Nova Southeastern University

The discussion post for week 4 is the same as the in class assignment from week 3. I image you are all studying and have not started working on the week 4 assignment yet.

I am making the following changes. I want you to answer the questions in the McCance workbook on page 49 and 50. I am including it here in case you do not have the book. I have added minor changes so answer the questions as they are presented here. 

Kevin Hohner, age 37, has shortness of breath and cough. He reports weight loss of 10 pounds in the last 2 months. He state that he has had pneumonia twice in the past  year. He has a prior history of unprotected homosexual sex with multiple partners but has been in a stable relationship for the past six years. HIs partner is HIV negative, but Mr. Hohner has not been tested for HIV.

His physical exam is as follows:

  • Vital signs normal except for elevated respiratory rate
  • Crackles in lower half of lung fields, with inspiratory and expiratory rhonchi
  • Reddish-brown, flat lesions on chest and arms.
  • Cardiac, abdominal and neurologic examinations normal
  • Perianal vesicular and ulcerative lesions


  • Serum electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine are normal
  • Chest x-ray shows diffuse infiltrates
  • CD4+ cells 180 cells/microliter (low); CD4+/CDB+ cells ratio below normal
  • Anti-HIV antibodies present: HIV viral particle load substantial

Mr. Hohner’s diagnoses are AIDS, pneumocystis pneumonia, Kaposi sarcoma and perianal herpes simplex virus.

1. Why did Mr. Hohner develop Kaposi sarcoma, an unusual type of cancer?

2.Why is his CD4+ T cell count so low?

3. What is the relationship between his low CD4+ T cell count and Mr. Hohner’s pneumocystis pneumonia?

4. Given the usual course of HIV infection, how long has Mr. Hohner most likely been HIV positive?

5. Why did he have HIV infection for so long before it was discovered?

Please include references outside of McCance and respond to your classmates. Feel free to include your own experiences, and lessons learned in working with HIV patients. Answer the questions as if you are answering the questions that are presented to you by your patient who is a college graduate in computer science.


Nova Southeastern University

1-Omar Suhail,

Thank you for your contribution to the discussion post this week. With the renowned success Apple has achieved over the last few decades, I doubt you’ll have any problem satisfying the needs for your business plan. One additional thing Apple has always been known for, is its unique design process. From the implementation of an idea to the fruition of their labor, Apple’s processes, innovation strategies, and product development have always been something I’ve admired. In Ken Kocienda’s book Creative Selection, the former Apple principal engineer stated, “We wanted to make products that were useful and meaningful for people in their lives, so while people were hectic, bustling around with their everyday work, they wouldn’t have to spend their concentration trying to figure out how their device works.” Will you bring these same types of principles to the table when considering your busines plan for your new product or service? Will it adhere to their already established product development processes, or would it require something new? I look forward to reading more about your plan as the course progresses.

-Chadwick Hancock


Kocienda, K. (2018). Creative selection: Inside Apple’s design process during the Golden Age of Steve Jobs (Vol. 1). Picador.

Word Count: 207

2- Tesla is a publicly traded company known for its unique superiority with technology of self-driving Tesla cars. It has been a stock that has raised in value over the last one year from around a low of $450 in the past year to over $1050 this week. Tesla has its vehicles which require little to no service, allowing the vehicle to spend more time on the road, using ecosystem technology to save economically and offers self-driving automobiles. It is now beginning to offer auto-steering in some of its models in addition to itself driving feature allowing drivers to be more relaxed and productive on the way to work (Value walk, 2020).

Tesla has been a pioneer of efficiency in the automobile industry with its fuel efficiency, self-driving features, self-parking, and independent nature of being a motor vehicle in comparison to other similarly priced vehicles. Its stock has soared and done extremely well increasing in just the last month over 32 percent and in the last five years increased by 2129% which has been an extraordinarily strong and remarkable performance. Investors find Tesla to be a strong company and solid investment as its overall performance, management, leadership is about innovation, advancing, technology, advancing past and adapting to change (Noor, Coman, Wiznizer, 2021).

Tesla offers many different models to make their vehicles affordable for more than just the upper class. It does a wonderful job offering services and products that include financial services, power battery services, solar panels, lifestyle products, and various product and service lines that diversify it as company and organization to meet the needs of a higher volume of consumers.


Elhennawy, N. (2019, Jun 28). Tesla says Shanghai car fire caused by failed battery module. AP Worldstream…

Naor, M., Coman, A., & Wiznizer, A. (2021). Vertically Integrated Supply Chain of Batteries, Electric Vehicles, and Charging Infrastructure: A Review of Three Milestone Projects from Theory of Constraints Perspective. Sustainability, 13(7), 3632.

ValueWalk. (2020). Phil’s Stock World: Tesla stock: Tesla vehicles dominate on Twitter. Newstex.

3-Organization To Study

The organization that I would like to study is Coca-Cola. The Coca-Cola beverage company is a multinational beverage company that has been in existence for over 100 years. I am interested in this particular company because it has been around for a long time and continues to be an industry leader throughout. The Coca-Cola Company is a household name in many states, and people like to be associated with known brands. I am also interested in this particular company because it has evolved over the last 132 years. The evolution is in terms of its leadership, product offerings, diversification, marketing, supply chain, and other aspects of the business. It takes a dedicated management team, good work ethic from employees, and solid strategies to keep a company relevant for over a decade.

Coca-Cola grew from humble origins to become one of the world’s leading beverage brands. Coca-Cola is currently a part of many income portfolios and makes massive amounts of revenue (Pendergrast & Crawford, 2020). To fight falling profits, the company has had to broaden its product offerings in current history. Despite evolving into a vast global industry with many products, Coca-Cola has never strayed from its classic and straightforward ideals (Pendergrast & Crawford, 2020). Despite its global reach, Coca-Cola realizes the importance of connecting with consumers and potential consumers more locally in the most relatable ways. Making personal connections and staying innovative while adhering to basic concepts and ethical standards are among the numerous things that have led to the company’s expansion over time.

There is so much to learn from this multinational company. The leadership skills and styles that have been utilized to propel the company. The company is also constantly innovating and introducing new products (Nsomba, 2021). I am interested in how the employees stay motivated to keep innovating and improving the current product offerings. Coca-cola also upholds most of the ethical standards and regulations in the industry; it takes a different kind of organizational culture and discipline to maintain ethical standards over a long period (Nsomba, 2021). Analyzing Coca-Cola will sure be eye-opening and insightful.


Nsomba, G. (2021). The Coca-Cola Company/Coca-Cola beverages Africa merger: Lessons for robust regional competition enforcement. The Antitrust Bulletin, 0003603X2110454.×211045436

Pendergrast, M., & Crawford, R. (2020). Coke and the Coca-Cola Company. Decoding Coca-Cola, 11-32.

4-I have picked a service-based organization with which I personally had the experience to work with.

It is a Virtual Assistant company. It is a remote helper company, where you can choose your own personal VA to look after your busy schedules.

The evolvement of this virtual assistant company came from Timothy (Tim) Ferriss’s book who associated with Virtual Assistant Company referencing virtual assistance. Expected to evaluate different outsourcers offering virtual assistance to experience and test the limitations of re-appropriating. He acquainted all the advantages with reevaluating your tasks in the book named The Four Hour Work Week” According to Tim, he was surrendering to the more you work, the better you are – a culture that is all-pervasive in the present obsessive worker world. Getting more cash doesn’t really mean you will do what you need throughout everyday life. Entrepreneurship is a dynamic, complex, and long process that involves undertaking a series of entrepreneurial activities to obtain external resources, exploit identified opportunities and then ultimately create a new venture. Ya-long, W., Long, D., Yao-kuang, L., & Xu-sheng, C. (2018).

An enormous piece of what you do can really be assigned (locally or across the globe) without the world reaching a conclusion. Indeed, the entire idea of a Virtual Assistant company rotates around having the option to deal with whatever can be rethought either to save your time or for more proficiency or to give you the benefit of pooled skill. Re-appropriating guarantees that you invest your valuable energy in the things that are truly significant. Currently, virtual reality technologies are of increased interest not only in the entertainment industry, but also in many other areas of society, such as, for example, industry, medicine, and education. Today, the world’s leading companies. Zhao, H., Qin, H. Z., & Ślusarczyk, B. (2019).

An inquiry being raised often is whether re-appropriating is about modest work. We would state ‘no’ to that. Indeed, cost exchange is the essential factor on which world business occurred (from the times of the flavor exchange) and still occurs across the globe however to have the option to support it, one (organizations, countries, urban areas) requirements to create what you would call as competitive edge in a worldwide.

Advantage at Virtual Assistant Company:

Ability to give adaptable work plans as per your need, Ability to be accessible during your business hours and outside it, Ability to give a pool of aptitude and information that you may not get with a solitary collaborator in your office or even by doing it without anyone’s help., Ability to chip away at a quicker expectation to absorb information as against a collaborator employed locally by the excellence of specific preparing and being presented to numerous work societies and customers.

Some disadvantages of this company

No having the alternative to be really present. Not having the choice to help without clear headings and rules from the client. The assistant while being set up to manage things autonomously will even now be conveyed rudderless if the client doesn’t contribute some quality energy sharing presumptions and rules for work at the start.

A Virtual Assistant company, Service is sold you can pick your own Virtual Assistant, who can manage basically any task, business or person, that needn’t bother with our real presence. If it might be done over the web, through email, fax, telephone, or visit, we can manage it.


Ya-long, W., Long, D., Yao-kuang, L., & Xu-sheng, C. (2018). Is business planning useful for the new venture emergence?: Moderated by the innovativeness of products. Chinese Management Studies, 12(4), 847-870.

Zhao, H., Qin, H. Z., & Ślusarczyk, B. (2019). Sustainability and Digitalization of Corporate Management Based on Augmented/Virtual Reality Tools Usage: China and Other World IT Companies’ Experience. Sustainability, 11(17), 4717.…


Nova Southeastern University

The non profit organization is called Broward Community & Family Health Centers. Use the strategic plan for (past five years) the organization as a resource. You will conduct a comprehensive strategic analysis of the selected organization and based on that suggest changes in the existing strategic plan of the chosen organization based on your strategic analysis. The report should not be more than 20 pages excluding the references and appendices if any. Tie and include all the readings and exercises done in this course in this report as applicable in various sections.

This final report and presentation should have the following components:

  • Executive Summary: Brief summary of the findings, gaps, and recommendations.
  • The methodology used: desk research, survey, interviews, archival research, focus group as deemed fit in your case (you can reach out to the executive leadership of the organization or maybe an internal department leadership within the organization, and ask if they would available to share the relevant information you might need. You can interview about how they approach creating a strategic plan – Is the strategic planning approach inclusive and decentralized or only centered around the executive leadership etc.)
  • Analyze the visionary leadership for the organization: Current vision, mission, core values: Gaps identified, suggested changes and justification, provide an explanation if there is a scope for effective strategic planning based on the analysis of visionary leadership.
  • Defining the Triple Bottomline for your organization
  • Organizational structure: Gaps identified, suggested changes and justification
  • The resource-based view (RBV) of the strategy of the organization
  • Analysis of the external and internal environment: What factors influence the internal and external environment of the organization?
  • An analysis of Michael Porter’s five forces adaptation as six forces in public and nonprofit for the competitive advantage of the organization.
  • A stakeholder analysis (SA) of the organization
  • Balance scorecard (BSC) analysis of the two strategic problem issues in the organization
  • SWOT Analysis of the organization
  • Visual Strategy Mapping (ViSM) of the two key strategic problem issues that are critical and need attention.
  • A recommendation for improvement in the strategic plan
  • A recommendation on how will you implement this strategic plan
  • Conclusion and what is your collective reflection as a group of doing this project.


Nova Southeastern University

I’m working on a supply chain discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

1-Hello Omar,

Export transactions are varied and often complex, requiring specialized skills and competencies. The firm may wish to launch new or adapted products abroad, target countries with varying marketing infrastructure, finance customer purchases, and contract with helpful facilitators at home and abroad. Accordingly, managers need to gain new, internationally-oriented capabilities in areas such as product development, distribution, logistics, finance, contract law, and currency management. Managers may need to acquire foreign language skills and the ability to interact with customers from diverse cultures.

2-According to Handfield, Jeong, & Choi (2019). Intuition is one of your most powerful decision-making skills when you’re torn between several possibilities. When making important decisions, business skills should always be considered, but there is just too much at risk nowadays to dismiss actual data-backed understanding. This is especially true now that data analytics and business intelligence applications are becoming more generally available. Scholars and practitioners have long stressed the importance of technology in enhancing supply chain information flows. The importance of information sharing in buyer–seller partnerships has been underlined appropriateness, and accessibility must all be part of our design solutions. We may create better design decisions that account for the subtlety of human variables that statistics cannot perceive by establishing the “why” with user behavior and then utilizing our intuition to guide us. We should use data as a guide rather than allowing it to dictate our strategy.

Based on Handfield, Cousins, Lawson, & Petersen (2015). If company’s strategies find it difficult to satisfy the wants of your customers, which is obviously counterproductive if your goal is to grow in a positive way. Even among major, well-known companies, strategy misalignment is common, but it is detrimental to growth, so if advancement is on your agenda, as well as that of your government colleagues and industry stakeholders, you must insist on specific improvements to supply chain procedures. Aligning your supply chain strategy to support industry growth does not entail accepting higher costs. The key is to concentrate your give chain team’s efforts on efficiency, value creation, and effectiveness. Prior research has emphasized the necessity of internal and external supply chain integration, but the supply management organization’s rising role in building this capacity has not been properly defined.

Handfield, R. B., Cousins, P. D., Lawson, B., & Petersen, K. J. (2015). how can supply management really improve performance? a knowledge-based model of alignment capabilities. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 51(3), 3-17. Retrieved from…

Handfield, R., Jeong, S., & Choi, T. (2019). Emerging procurement technology: Data analytics and cognitive analytics. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 49(10), 972-1002. doi:

3-There is often too much detail available to make a clear judgment about a lack of data. Conduct the following five steps in the data analysis process to develop your data analysis skills. The questions must be quantifiable, simple, and concise (Liberatore, Pollack-Johnson & Clain, 2017). Thinking about how you measure your data is equally critical, especially before the data collection period. The measuring method either supports or undermines your research later.

It’s essential to keep the following points in mind when you compile and organize the data: Before gathering additional data, consider whether information may be gleaned from current datasets or sources. The data collection process can be time-consuming and time-consuming, but it’s essential to start with a clear understanding of your goals and objectives (Handfield, Jeong & Choi, 2019). The information will help you make informed decisions about how to make the best use of your data. It can also be helpful to know how to respond to spikes in demand, such as when a customer requests more workers, are short-staffed, or the company needs to reduce its workforce. The right question to ask is: Can the company decrease its workforce without sacrificing quality?

Plan of time a file storage and naming scheme to help all team members communicate. Data processing tools and software are handy during this point. No matter how much data you gather, the chance will still play a role in the performance. Visio, Minitab, and Stata are all excellent software sets for sophisticated mathematical data processing (Liberatore, Pollack-Johnson & Clain, 2017). However, when it comes to decision-making software, nothing beats Microsoft Excel in most situations.

For a refresher on all the tasks Excel performs for data processing, we recommend this HARVARD BUSINESS overview class. We also recommend this business overview class for those who need a refresher on data processing and data analysis (Handfield, Jeong & Choi, 2019). Weigh the pros and cons of different data processing tools to help you better understand your data and data processing options. We’ll provide a step-by-step guide on how to get the most from your data in the next step of the analysis. The final step is to interpret your data to answer your question.

If your analysis of the results stands up under these problems and considerations, you’ve probably reached a helpful conclusion (Liberatore, Pollack-Johnson & Clain, 2017). By implementing these five steps, you will make smarter decisions about your company or government department. Moreover, your choices will be supported by data that has been thoroughly gathered and analyzed.

When firms examine the many performance measures available, there are several features that they should look for when picking metrics to aid in business choices.

  • Simple to Understand – A good measure is one that everyone who looks at it can readily understand (Elrod, Murray & Bande, 2013). It should be obvious what the metric truly measures and how it is calculated.
  • Quantitative – A key feature of a supply chain performance indicator is that it is stated by a number that is objective, i.e., obtained from facts rather than subjective.
  • Metrics What is Essential – Some metrics may appear significant, but the metric’s significance may be questioned when the data is reviewed. A performance metric used to make business decisions must measure critical data.
  • Instigates Correct Behavior – A good performance metric should compel the user to take the appropriate action (Elrod, Murray & Bande, 2013). For example, if a metric shows the number of orders processed per day, the correct action would increase the number of orders processed. In addition, however, the measure might occasionally inspire the user to act, albeit at the expense of other areas. For example, if the number of moves each day measures the warehouse personnel, they might raise the number of actions at the cost of the number of trucks loaded and processed.
  • Measurements Should Be Simple to Gather – Some firms use complex performance metrics that are time-consuming to collect and may need time away from line employees to prepare (Elrod, Murray & Bande, 2013). This is unhelpful, and measurements of this nature should be avoided.
  • References

    Elrod, C., Murray, S., P.E., & Bande, S. (2013). A review of performance metrics for supply chain management: EMJ.Engineering Management Journal, 25(3), 39-50. Retrieved from…

    Handfield, R., Jeong, S., & Choi, T. (2019). Emerging procurement technology: Data analytics and cognitive analytics.International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 49(10), 972-1002. doi:

    Liberatore, M. J., Pollack-Johnson, B., & Clain, S. H. (2017). Analytics capabilities and the decision to invest in analytics. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 57(4), 364-373. doi:


    Nova Southeastern University

    1. Write a well-developed three paragraph analysis (about 300-350 words) analyzing how the advertisement uses two rhetorical appeals.
      • In the first paragraph, describe the advertisement.
      • In the second paragraph, identify and analyze one of the three rhetorical appeals. Include HOW the appeal was used, WHO the appeal was geared towards, and whether you feel the appeal was effective.
      • In the third paragraph, identify and analyze another of the three rhetorical appeals. Include HOW the appeal was used, WHO the appeal was geared towards, and whether you feel the appeal was effective.
    2. Attach a photo of the advertisement or include a link to  the video of the example you chose.
    3. Review the postings and advertisements of your peers. Reply to TWO peer postings.
      • Each response should be at least 150 words and address your peer’s perspective on how the rhetorical appeals were used in the chosen advertisement. 
      • Post your each response as a Reply to their posting.

    POST 1

    Audible: Books that fit with real life (Links to an external site.)

    This commercial is about an average middle class woman who goes throughout her day using the audiobook subscription app, Audible. Throughout her day she drives her kids, talks to her husband, goes to the gym, and appears in two New Zealand celebrities’ homes, Poh and Clarke Gayford. In each part of the ad a different audible book is featured to show all of the different audio books that audible has for different occasions. The woman also provides information about audible whilst she goes about her day. The two appeals that were mainly used are ethos and logos.

    The first rhetorical appeal used is ethos which refers to the speaker’s credibility. Clarke Gayford is a famous radio host and the husband of the current New Zealand prime minister. So, they are using celebrity endorsement to appeal to the audience by having his credibility be that he is famous. Gayford says, “I might just be an average bloke but trust me audible really takes the hassle out of house work”. This adds to the narrative that audible is good for any occasion and adds to the credibility of the speaker because the audience is mainly just average people and Gayford is trying to show that he is credible because he is like anyone else. The second celebrity is Poh Ling Yeow who is a chef and author of Poh’s kitchen. Poh is a book author which brings some credibility to the speaker. In the advertisement Poh is using audible while cooking when she says, “Audible is amazing when you’re cooking up a storm” which again adds to the narrative that you can use Audible no matter what you are doing which is what the ad is trying to portray.

    The advertisement also appeals to logos. The woman says that the average audible listener listens to 22 books a year which emphasizes her argument that it is easy to do and that people really enjoy it. She also says that there are 400,000 audio books which assumes the argument that there are a lot of books to choose from.

    POST 2 (Links to an external site.)

    This commercial is about a goat who loves eating Doritos. Due to her increasing demand for Doritos, her owner put her on selling. Then a guy passing by saw that goat who was eating Doritos on sale. The guy who saw the goat was also eating Doritos and, he loves eating Doritos too. After he takes that goat to his house, he showed the goat a pantry full of Doritos. The goat started eating Doritos. She ate Doritos the whole night, due to the noise of her eating Doritos he, was not able to sleep. The next morning, the goat went to the pantry to eat Doritos she saw that the pantry was empty. When she saw an empty pantry, she screamed so loud and starting breaking things of his house. Then she went to his room when she pushed the door of his room, she saw his room full of Doritos and he was making a board for putting her on sale.
    This advertisement uses pathos because it tells you that Doritos are so good that a goat is a big fan of eating Doritos. It shows her emotions her love for Doritos. This advertisement is funny because it shows a crazy love of a goat towards Doritos that this owner gets frustrated and decided to sell her. There is a big example in this video that shows that how much she loves Doritos is that when she saw an empty pantry she screamed very loud and starting breaking thinks of her owner’s house.
    This advertisement also shows logos because these videos show the fact, that Doritos are so tasty that not only humans love them, even animals love them too. After seeing the goat’s love towards Doritos, someone who hasn’t tried Doritos yet will think that Doritos are so tasty that animals even get crazy about it.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1-Beliefs are things we were taught or grew up believing in. Ethics just like beliefs work the same way. “Business ethics and having social responsibility in the multinational corporations(MNCs) are more and more challenging, as they operate the culturally varied environments, which may vary from the host-to-host country of each foreign subsidiary and often very different from home culture(Godiwalla, 2012).” This can be a tricky topic as there isn’t a wrong or right answer. If you lower your ethics for a business or a deal it could be for a good cause. This is called negotiation. If you can meet in the middle, then it’s a win for both sides. However, some people may find it a weakness when you let someone lower your standards.

    A business owner has to think about his company and the goals they are trying to achieve. When you start your business plan you write down your goals and your ethics. So, I agree with Professor Sullivan when he says MNC have to maintain a standard code, and they need to stick by it whether it goes or go against what a country may believe in. We have to remember that each country just like the United States works differently. If we start changing things for one person then you will have to do it for everybody. Let take Chick-fil-A for example, they are closed on Sunday. Chick-fil-A has ethics, and they believe to have their restaurant closed on Sunday. The owner knows they are losing a lot of money by being closed on Sunday; however, he is sticking to their ethics. Sometimes it’s better to stick to your ethics than trying to make a dollar.


    Godiwalla, Y. H. (2012). Business Ethics and Social Responsibility for the Multinational Corporation (MNC).…


    Research by Pirozek and Darsilova ( 2013) found in the European market, companies that were purchased by multinational groups as operating companies with their own history, culture and traditions or companies with an exclusively local sphere of action adhered to their existing ethical standards. However, this adherence to local culture etc. was usually not sufficient for larger multinational corporations operating in a diverse environment. The MNEs frequently used the approach of applying uniform codes, particularly the Code of Ethics, in which elementary rules of employee behavior in the workplace, for staff as well as for business partners are anchored.



    3-Hello, very good evening Professor and classmates,

    The U.S.-based MNC should maintain its standard code of ethics that applies to any country, even if it holds a disadvantage in a foreign country that allows activities that might be viewed as unethical as being an easier route. In this way, the MNC’s establishes more trustworthy credibility worldwide. The MNC is regarded as having an integral system allocated and instilled in their organizations worldwide. If that required trust in which MNC is known for breaks, the whole system will crumble alongside it. The Multinational Corporations and the governance effectiveness will be the resounding way to levitate the expectations that will be viewed around the world about MNC’s and their moral values, which are always looked upon as effectiveness excellence (Clark, & Brown, 2015).

    Some economic crises resound in the MNC’s when they are regarded for the shift’s productions considered for their subsidiary in response to the economic crisis. Having a strong code of conduct that applies to the host country and to the other countries themselves regulates the aura of a stable and strong foundation for the code of ethics that applies to any country. Even if it holds a disadvantage in a foreign country that allows activities that might be viewed as unethical, in this way, countries all over can receive more credibility worldwide (Shin, & Lee, 2019). In an economic crisis, the MNC’s should show their strong will of character and not be convinced to commit unethical decisions or acts. This strong willpower will be an example for the rest of the world to follow and MNC’s alike to outwardly and inwardly portray.

    Another method in which insourcing and foreign input production affect the domestic output in various sequences relates to and constitutes the buying from unaffiliated firms or insourcing foreign presentation. The third article suggested that this decision directly affects domestic production because international insourcing affects the operational flexibility and the firms’ opportunities for accessing knowledge and capabilities developed abroad. Empirical results based on firm-level data of Swiss firms confirm this hypothesis. Having the ethics and moral code of conduct values instilled in these MNC’s countries worldwide will respect and honor business conducted by them, in this case being the Swiss Countries’ firms (Arvanitis, Bollie, et al., 2017).


    Arvanitis, S., Bolli, T., & Stucki, T. (2017). In or Out: How Insourcing Foreign Input Production Affects Domestic Production. Management International Review, 57(6), 879-907.

    Clark, C., & Brown, J. A. (2015). Multinational Corporations and Governance Effectiveness: Toward a More Integrative Board: JBE. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(3), 565-577.

    Shin, H., & Lee, S. (2019). Economic crisis, intra-MNC production shifts and MNC performance from a network perspective: APJM. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 36(1), 185-217.


    Nova Southeastern University


    The value-chain concept is useful in international business because it helps clarify what activities are performed where in the world. For instance, exporting firms perform most “upstream” value-chain activities (R&D and production) in the home market and most “downstream” activities (marketing and after-sales service) abroad. Each value-adding activity in the firm’s value chain is subject to internationalization; that is, it can be performed abroad instead of at home. Companies have considerable latitude regarding where in the world they locate or configure key value-adding activities. The most typical reasons for locating value-chain activities in particular countries are to reduce the costs of R&D and production or to gain closer access to customers. Through offshoring, the firm relocates a major value-chain activity by establishing a factory or other subsidiary abroad. A related trend is global outsourcing, in which the firm delegates performance of a value-adding activity to an external supplier or contractor located abroad. Globalization allows firms to relocate key value-adding activities to the most advantageous locations around the world.

    2-Since the late 1970s, China’s rise as a “world factory” has been attributed to the strategic coupling of local assets, particularly low-cost labor in coastal regions such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD), in Global Production Networks (GPNs) driven by transnational corporations’ cross-border investment. Yang (2016). It has caused labor-intensive industrial enterprises to relocate from coastal China to lower-cost places such as interior China and neighboring Southeast Asian countries. Although much research has been done on TNC internal movement from coastal to inland China, less has been done on cross-border industrial relocation from China to Southeast Asian countries. The key factors to be considered in making the country selection in the production process can be determine by some of the aspects.

    • Financial stability
    • Location of the vendor
    • Well established supplier, customer base, and reference site
    • Accreditation and awards
    • Reliable and quick after-sale support

    Financial stability is recommended that one initially consider the software provider’s financial viability or stability. This ensures that the service provider is trustworthy. Knowing that the software seller will be in business for the foreseeable future is also reassuring. Failure to check this while picking a vendor may result in the selection of an insolvent and bankrupt supplier, resulting in failed software support and difficulty in reconfiguring or fixing faults. Location of the vendor is another important issue to consider when choosing software or a vendor is location. It is preferable to choose a dealer from one’s own country. This is just for the purpose of having quicker or more readily available access to customer service help for a speedy response. Local support enables a faster and more responsive reaction in the event of a technical or local demand. In terms of accessibility, choosing foreign merchants proved tough. It will be tough to obtain advanced support from the supplier in the event of an incident. Well established supplier, customer base, and reference site is yet another factor to consider while selecting a software company. Because it is a sign of confidence and quality products, a well-established provider with a well-established customer base is chosen. Customers who are satisfied act as a reference site, sharing their success experiences. A seller without a customer base or a reference site is extremely unsafe, as it suggests that the product is either defective or new to the market with a lot of flaws. Accreditation and awards- It’s also a good idea to see if the supplier’s software has won any awards. This will be a sign of the software’s ability to accomplish its goal. Inquire if the supplier’s software has won any industry awards or if they are a member of any professional or business organization or body. Purchasing an approved product is quite safe because regulatory authorities ensure that the program meets specified requirements. Choosing a provider with no awards or accreditation may result in the purchase of poor software. Because software is so important, it should be purchased from a reputable vendor. Reliable and quick after-sale support- It is critical to evaluate or inquire about a software vendor’s after-sale customer assistance while making a purchasing decision. A vendor with a well-established after-sale service network ensures that customers get the most out of their purchases. If the company has established customer care contact, such as phone lines and emails, any issues that arise after the transaction will be addressed quickly. Choosing a provider with bad after-sale customer service will be extremely annoying if an issue emerges that requires immediate attention. If no technical staff from the provider is available to assist the customer in setting up the software, the launch may fail. Bag (2012).

    Bag, S. (2012). Review of supplier selection models: Key success factors and blueprint of supply chain excellence. Journal of Supply Chain Management Systems, 1(1), 56-62. Retrieved from

    Yang, C. (2016). Relocating labour-intensive manufacturing firms from china to southeast asia: A preliminary investigation. Bandung: Journal of the Global South, 3(1), 1-13. doi:

    3-Step 1: Determine which manufacturing pieces should be relocated.

    Companies should approach Vietnam with a clear idea of the type of production they want to do there. Most businesses choose an alternate site because of its cheaper costs and suitability for primary production and assembly.

    Those interested in more complicated manufacturing operations should comprehensively examine Vietnam’s labor force, sourcing networks, and infrastructure to determine that this production is viable.

    Step 2: Decide on an entry strategy.

    Vietnam offers various market entrance alternatives; we’ve included the most prevalent corporate structure options for US investors below.

    Office of the Representative

    A representative office (RO) is a low-cost entry point for businesses interested in learning more about the Vietnamese market. As a result, this is one of the most popular options for newcomers to the Vietnamese market, and it frequently precedes a more significant presence in the nation. ROs are currently allowed to engage in the following activities:

  • Conducting market research;
  • Serving as a liaison office for its parent firm; and
  • promoting its head office’s operations through meetings and other actions that lead to future business.
  • The Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) in Vietnam does not yet stipulate the minimum capital requirement for ROs. While the MPI does not specify capital requirements, businesses must demonstrate that their capital contributions are adequate to finance their operations’ activities. As a result, potential investors should expect to contribute at least $10,000 to support their activities (Raghunathan, Soundarapandian & Tyagi, 2020). In six to eight weeks, ROs can be set up.

    a subsidiary office

    A branch office (BO) can carry out business operations in Vietnam within the parent firm’s scope. A parent firm must have conducted business in its home country for at least five years to establish a BO (Bag, 2012). BOs are only available in particular service industries, such as finance and banking. BOs can recruit employees directly, making contracting between the parent business and Vietnamese enterprises easier and functioning similarly to a liaison office.

    BOs can rent offices, lease or buy the equipment and facilities they need for operations, and hire local and international personnel.

  • Remit earnings to a foreign country;
  • Purchase and sell products, as well as engage in commercial operations, as required by license;
  • Create departments that reflect the parent firm, such as accounting, marketing, and human resources.
  • The BO will require an establishment license as well as a seal with the parent company’s name. The BO will also need to hire a Vietnamese-born branch manager (Daisy & Khurana, 2016).

    Foreign firms may choose management from their own country, but they must first get a work permit in Vietnam before being recruited as a BO manager.

    After the firm provides all of the required papers, the Ministry of Industry and Trade authorizes the BO’s registration, which generally takes 20 working days.

    a company that foreigners entirely control

    In Vietnam, a 100 percent foreign-owned company (FOE) might have the following forms:

  • Joint-stock corporations;
  • Limited-liability companies.
  • Due to their lower liability and capital requirements, limited liability corporations (LLCs) are the most popular type of investment for international investors.

    Single-member LLCs with just one owner and multiple-member LLCs, which have more than one shareholder, are the two types of LLCs. Depending on the needs of a particular investment, these owners might be private persons or corporations.

    On average, the setup time for a 100 percent FOE is two to four months.

    a partnership

    A joint venture (JV) is a business collaboration between two or more firms or people for a specified purpose. JVs are not a one-of-a-kind corporate structure; participants often form an LLC for basic JVs and a joint-stock company (JSC) if they want to list Vietnam’s stock markets.

    The JSC structure is necessary for investors acquiring interests in state-owned businesses listed on Vietnam’s stock markets. Foreign investors might choose to participate in joint ventures as a majority (more than 50% ownership) or minority (less than 50% ownership) shareholder when entering the Vietnamese market (Raghunathan, Soundarapandian & Tyagi, 2020).

    JVs must have the same amount of capital as 100 percent FOEs. Unconditional industries are exempt from mandatory capital requirements (Bag, 2012). In many situations, however, Vietnam’s MPI imposes industry-specific capital requirements.

    When analyzing the capital needs for JVs in Vietnam, the percentage of ownership, and hence the amount of capital provided, is the most relevant statistic to utilize. Currently, legislative rules mandate a 30 percent foreign participation floor for JVs and a cap in some conditional industries (Daisy & Khurana, 2016). On an industry-by-industry basis, the government also requires minimum contributions for domestic investors. It takes two to four months to set up a JV.

    Collaboration between the public and commercial sectors

    A public-private partnership (PPP) collaborates between a foreign or local company and the government to complete critical infrastructure projects. As a result of the diminished role of state-owned companies, expanding population, and increasing urbanization, Vietnamese authorities are vigorously seeking PPPs for a range of infrastructure projects. Build-Transfer-Operate (BTO), Build-Transfer (BT), Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT), Build-Own-Operate (BOO), and Build, Transfer, and Lease are the five kinds of PPPs (BTL).

    Acquisitions and mergers

    For international investors wanting to start a business in Vietnam, mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are becoming increasingly attractive. Investors can benefit from pre-existing access to consumers, locations, and distribution channels as a result of an M&A (Gopalakrishnan, Guilbault & Ojha, 2017). This local expertise can be crucial to successful operations in Vietnam’s dynamic but quickly changing investment climate.

    Investors that are having trouble breaking into the Vietnamese market may discover that the M&A path offers a unique answer to several issues.

    Investors must assess the benefits and drawbacks of merging or purchasing a company to determine whether it is a good fit for their business plan. A merger occurs when two firms unite to establish a single entity by transferring assets, rights, liabilities, and interests to the merged entity, thereby connecting the two businesses.

    Acquisitions necessitate a change in ownership and might take the form of existing share purchases or the addition of additional shares, but they can also include the purchase of assets (Gopalakrishnan, Guilbault & Ojha, 2017). Liability for non-public corporations is mainly based on failure to comply with the agreement’s requirements.

    Investors considering this path should be aware of the legal framework for mergers and acquisitions, as well as the procedures and constraints that come with them.

    Step 3: Determine the best investment location.

    The majority of Vietnam’s foreign investment and industrial activity is concentrated in three key economic regions (KERs). Each KER has its own set of manufacturing circumstances, allowing for a variety of investment options (Daisy & Khurana, 2016). Therefore, companies should understand each zone, the provinces that make up that zone, and the industrial activity areas.


    Bag, S. (2012). Review of supplier selection models: Key success factors and blueprint of supply chain excellence. Journal of Supply Chain Management Systems, 1(1), 56-62. Retrieved from…

    Daisy, M. J., & Khurana, R. (2016). A framework to study vendors’ contribution in a client vendor relationship in information technology service outsourcing in india. Benchmarking, 23(2), 338-358. doi:

    Gopalakrishnan, S., Guilbault, M., & Ojha, A. K. (2017). A view from the vendor’s side: Factors that determine satisfaction. South Asian Journal of Business Studies, 6(3), 214-228. Retrieved from…

    Raghunathan, K., Soundarapandian, R. K., & Tyagi, S. K. (2020). Solving cloud vendor selection problem using intuitionistic fuzzy decision framework. Neural Computing & Applications, 32(2), 589-602. doi:


    Nova Southeastern University


    Patient is a middle aged African American male with a history of a previous heart attack. Patient also has a strong family history of heart disease as well, which makes him a strong candidate for potential cardiac problems. According to the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) risk estimator, this patient has a 50% lifetime atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk (American College of Cardiology, 2018). Based upon the patient’s medication list, he must have been seen previously by a provider for management for not only heart disease but possibly for hypertension as well. The patient’s blood pressure upon presentation was high. Patients with increased blood pressure can result in atherosclerotic changes in the arteries and during physical activity, as such with the patient bike riding and becoming short of breath, the blood flow is restricted (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2022). The recommendations from the ACC/AHA are that patients with moderate risk are to start moderate intensity statin if their LDL is between 70-189 (American College of Cardiology, 2018). The appropriate medications for patients who are at high risk or previously had a MI are ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, antiplatelet agents, and others (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2022).

    After modifying the data parameters for the patient and adding that he is a diabetic and smoker, he would be at a 69% lifetime ASCVD risk. Individuals who have a variety of ASVD risk factors and are diabetic, it is recommended that they are given a high-intensity statin medication that will help reduce their LDL at least by half (American College of Cardiology, 2018). Patients who have a prior history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have the strongest factors that are associated with high-intensity statin therapy, such as Atorvastatin (Ho et al., 2018).

    There are a wide variety of helpful tools that can be found on the American Heart Association website to help people look for signs and symptoms of heart disease and other cardiovascular disorders. These tools also help manage and steps to take to prevent further heart disease. The LDL Manager is another great tool to make it easier for those who check their blood pressure and cholesterol from home. Any recent changes in one’s lifestyle can be inputted in this tool and it can guide them on what to do step by step.

    American College of Cardiology. (2018). ASCVD risk estimator intended for patients with LDL-C. ASCVD Risk Estimator. Retrieved September 26, 2021, from!/calulate/recommendation/.

    Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (2022). Chronic Stable Angina. In Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed., pp. 290–299). essay, Wolters Kluwer.

    Ho, K., Jamsen, K. M., Bell, J. S., Korhonen, M. J., Mc Namara, K. P., Magliano, D. J., Liew, D., Ryan-Atwood, T. E., Shaw, J. E., Luc, S., & Ilomäki, J. (2018). Demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors associated with high-intensity statin therapy in Australia: The AusDiab study. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 74(11), 1493–1501. https://doi-org./10.1007/s00228-018-2518-1


    Nova Southeastern University

    To be able to translate the science into practice, one must be able to critically appraise the 

    literature. For this reason, student will have the opportunity to select an article that pertains to
    their class project subject area and critically appraise the article. Students will choose a primary
    research article that focuses on an aspect of the class project. The paper will include the items listed in the rubric. The paper will be no more than 10 pages, 12-point font, one-inch margins, Times New Roman 

    ? Use correct APA format 10
    ? Is the purpose of the study clear?  Is the study significant?
    ? Will it make a practical or theoretical contribution? 5
    ? Is the introduction well organized? 5
    Review of the Literature:
    ? Is the Review of Literature comprehensive and up to date?
    ? Is there a critical review or a review of findings?
    ? Does the review clearly relate previous studies to the current
    research problem?
    ? Does the review help establish the importance of the
    ? Given the topic of study and the researcher’s stated purpose,
    how does the selected method achieve the stated purpose?
    ? What methodological components has the researcher
    identified to conduct the study?
    ? Based on the material presented, how does the researcher
    demonstrate that he or she has followed the method?
    ? If triangulation is used, explain how the researcher
    maintained the integrity of the study?
    ? How were the participant’s selected?
    ? Explain how the selection process supports a qualitative
    sampling paradigm.
    ? Are the participants in the study appropriate to inform the
    research? Explain.
    Data Collection:
    ? How does the data collection method reported support
    discovery, description, or understanding?

    ? What data collection strategies does the researcher use?Does the researcher clearly state how human subjects were
    ? How was data saturation achieved?
    ? Are the data collection strategies appropriate to achieve the
    purpose of the study? Explain.
    Data Analysis:
    ? What strategies were used to analyze data?
    ? Based on the reported analysis, can the reader follow the
    researcher’s stated processes?

    Findings Reliability/Validity/Rigor/Trustworthiness:
    ? How do the reported findings demonstrate the participant’s
    ? How does the researcher relate the findings of the study to
    what is already known?
    ? How does the researcher demonstrate that the findings are
    meaningful to the participants?
    ? How does the researcher provide a context for use of the
    ? Are the conclusions drawn from the study appropriate?
    ? What are the recommendations for future research?
    ? Are they clearly related to study findings?


    Nova Southeastern University

    I’m working on a writing discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.


    Florida Action Coalition is an approach related to health professionals developed to enhance social change and create positive health in the medical or health sector. Florida Action Coalition was designed to provide better health care services to patients by improving healthcare facilities’ improvements. Moreover, the coalition ensured that work ethics were formulated and adhered to by all stakeholders. The Florida Action Coalition mission is to facilitate change in the health care field in terms of the culture practised addressing issues such as diversity, education, practice, and collaborative leadership in the medical scope. Florida Action Coalition was established to serve several functions, which include: An advancement in telecommunication. Consequently, the upgrade would ensure that the health sector’s response team is effective and efficient in attending to patients and handling no delay. Besides, the coalition served as a means of creating and enhancing equality in the health care field. Some instances of inequality were being experienced and reported in the health care field where the stakeholders were not being treated equally. However, the coalition advocated equality in health care.

    Also, the coalition aimed at ensuring that appropriate leadership is selected in the medical field in most health institutions to ensure that they are led correctly—the Florida Action Coalition aimed at ensuring that there is balance in the health workforce. Previously, there was an imbalance of force in the various departments in the healthcare facilities as some of the departments were understaffed while others had a large workforce. Nurses are faced with some challenges which hinder them from delivering quality health care services to patients. Long working hours are among the challenges the workers’ experience, making them tired and losing concentration in their work due to lack of rest and enough sleep. Workplace hazards affect the nurses because the nurses may be exposed to contagious diseases such as those caused by viruses that may indeed happen to affect their health conditions. Shortage of staff in the hospitals and other health care facilities (SAU, 2020). In addition, the number of nurses in most of the facilities is inadequate, which would lead to an increase in the nurses’ workload, which may make them overwhelmed or work under pressure, which would lead to poor performance. Nurses are among the primary stakeholders in the medical field and impact the policies (Burke, 2016). Besides, nurses are involved in policy-making by engaging in political knowledge and practices in the medical field. Nurses can vie for various leadership positions in the medical field and become part of the policymakers once they are elected. Nurses can play a role in policy-making by becoming active members of a professional nursing organization. Furthermore, organizations play a significant part in policy-making since they are considered while the policies are being made.


    Burke, S. A. (2016, February 6). Influence through policy: Nurses have a unique role. Retrieved from Sigma Nursing.

    SAU. (2020, April 23). Challenges in Nursing: What Do Nurses Face on a Daily Basis? Retrieved from Spring Arbor University:


    The importance of interprofessional collaboration cannot be stressed enough, specially, in underserved communities. The advanced practice nurse can reduce health disparities in underserved communities through interprofessional collaboration when designing evidence-based health promotion interventions. Interprofessional collaboration amongst healthcare providers has multiple benefits such as building trust among patients, families, and communities, trust facilitates the sharing of health information and care coordination, greater continuity, and adherence to care, as well as improved patient outcomes (Jadotte et al., 2019, p. 2). Collaborative healthcare teams improve access to and quality of care to underserved communities which is one way to reduce health disparities in the underserved population (Rosenthal et al., 2019, p. 70). Healthcare providers working collaborately can refer patients to one another, for example: an advanced nurse practitioner seeing a woman of childbearing age who has never been seen by an OB/GYN can refer the patient to a collaborative OB/GYN partner so the patient can have an annual pap smear. Another example of health promotion and disease prevention through interprofessional collaboration would be for an advanced practice nurse, working in primary care, who is taking care of a 50-year-old male who has never had a colon screening, can refer the patient to a gastroenterologist who is working in collaboration with the advanced practice nurse in treating the underserved community. Interprofessional healthcare providers who are collaborating can arrange to meet quarterly, or as needed, to address the needs of the communities they serve and together come up with strategies to implement evidence-based interventions tailored to the needs of the community to prevent disease and promote health.


    Jadotte, Y. T., Gayen, S., Chase, S. M., Passannante, M., & Holly, C. (2019). Interprofessional Collaboration and Patient Health Outcomes in Urban Disadvantaged Settings: A Grounded Theory Study. Health, Interprofessional Practice and Education, 3(4), 1185.

    Rosenthal, B. (2017). Interprofessional collaboration among integrative health and medicine providers in community health settings providing care to the underserved. Advances in Integrative Medicine, 4(3), 130.


    Health and health care disparities refer to the differences in health and health care between groups that exist amongst populations, impacted by social determinants that can negatively impact subsets of the population who have systematically experienced greater socioeconomic obstacles to health It is important that advance practice nurses encourage action and facilitate accountability to reduce disparities using interventions that are effective and scalable. There are many studies the identify promising programs and interventions for reducing the burden of disease or risk factors for a specific health problem. However, to reduce health disparities require national leadership by engaging a variation in stakeholders. Interprofessional collaboration is the foundation needed for health care providers to support patient needs and reduce health disparities. Interprofessional collaborative teams that include nurses, physicians, social workers, pharmacists, and physical and occupational therapists can help healthcare organizations improve patient and family experiences, ensure good outcomes, and reduce costs (Sigmon, 2020, p. 36). Advance practice nurses can design programs through evidence-based health promotion programs such as one through service learning, which is one of the most common educational approaches. It combines community-based services with specific learning objectives and preparation. Partnerships between professions vested in health equity can address the needs of the community while enhancing the student learning experience (Thorton & Persaud, 2018, p.9). Furthermore, advance practice nurses must be prepared with foundational transformational leadership competencies to meet the challenges of leading collaboratively with other professions (Goldsberry, 2018, p. 2). For the healthcare team to create an effective design for health promotion factors such as communication, respect, task prioritization and trust must be considered. Interprofessional requires strong leadership to create collaborative public-private partnerships, risk taking to develop new patient care services that include cultural-competency training, and vision to design evidence-based health promotion interventions or programs


    Goldsberry J. W. (2018). Advanced practice nurses leading the way: Interprofessional collaboration. Nurse education today, 65, 1–3. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2018.02.024

    Sigmon, L. B. (2020). Interprofessional collaboration made easy. American Nurse Today, 15(11), 36–38.

    Thornton, M., & Persaud, S. (2018). Preparing Today’s Nurses: Social Determinants of Health and Nursing Education. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(3), 9.…


    Nova Southeastern University

    I’m working on a supply chain discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

    I 1-iDear Dr and classmates,

    Procurement is a process that involves the acquisition of goods or services through the purchase, rental or exchange from any source. Some companies have a high cost that can be 50% or more of the company’s income from the purchase of raw materials, work in process, finished products, spare parts, services and other goods that are essential for operating organizations. The main objective of procurement is to be able to acquire materials and services at the lowest possible total cost, without affecting the quality standards required to satisfy the needs of both internal and external clients of the company (Bienhaus, & Haddud, 2018).

    Procurement specializes into four areas that are: Contract management, Bid management, Vendor management and logistics management. These areas define the commercial departments of the companies where the purchase or acquisition of goods or services is made for the manufacture of a good or service (Bienhaus, & Haddud, 2018).

    Information technology helps integration of suppliers through live bidding on purchase requisitioning and helps send them counter offers instantaneously to lower cycle time from purchase requisitioning to purchase order. It helps seamless connectivity and faster deal closure with transparency and ethics (Puschmann, 2005).


    Bienhaus, F., & Haddud, A. (2018). Procurement 4.0: Factors influencing the digitisation of procurement and supply chains. Business Process Management Journal, 24(4), 965-984. doi:

    Puschmann, T., & Alt, R. (2005). Successful use of e-procurement in supply chains. Supply Chain Management, 10(2), 122-133. doi:


    The procurement of selected value-chain activities, including production of intermediate goods or finished products, from independent suppliers is a important part in the company strategy.

    3-To adapt to a serious level of vulnerability and expanding production network hazard an organization needs to build up a vigorous, strong yet at the same time effective store network. Because of the solid rivalry organizations must be responsive, acquaint modified items rapidly with the market and continually work on their inner and outer tasks to acquire a serious advantage (Kexin & Mu, 2014). As supply chain activities are very data concentrated, information technology has been noted as an undeniably significant theme to assist endeavors with improving store network execution.

    The conveyance of exact, great data can possibly uncover matchless differentiators against contenders, accordingly making long haul and generally speaking benefit and supportable serious advantages. Due to the increment of information concentrated exercises in numerous businesses not single organizations go up against one another any longer, yet rather entire supply chains. More extreme mix and joint effort that accompanies the shift from conventional market-based relations to key relations are fundamental in a quickly changing, worldwide climate and can make differential benefit and productivity (Bagchi, 2013). Organizations need to settle on complex choices concerning the significance of information technology on supply chain management. In this manner the effect of data innovation on store network execution is a subject worth to examine. The motivation behind this paper is to investigate the positive just as adverse consequence of information technology on supply chain performance.

    Information technology has hugely adjusted items, measures just as foundations and the progression of data is the instrument that associates inventory network accomplices (Zhang, 2021)). Information technology besides gives new freedoms like the web to drive development and a higher capacity to rapidly dispatch new tweaked. Albeit each and every Data Innovation drives various benefits and the positive impacts contrast from one industry to another, significant likenesses with respect to the presentation results can be.


    Bagchi, P.K.. (2013), “Integration of Information Technology and Organizations in a Supply Chain”, The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 89-108.

    Kexin Z., Mu X. (2014) Forming Interoperability Through Interorganizational Systems Standards. Journal of Management Information Systems 30:4, pages 269-298.

    Zhang, Z.(J). (2021), “Impact of information technology on supply chain integration and company performance: evidence from cross-border e-commerce companies in China”, Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 460-489.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1-Hi Student,

    I’ve asked this question in several different ways but no one seems to answer the question. So what are some pormotions that work internationally? Anthing specific?

    2- Sales campaigns are designed to boost product or service sales in the near term. They are an essential part of most marketing managers’ arsenal strategies for driving demand because they are so successful at causing short-term sales (Jiang & Ma, 2018). Marketers often depend on the same resources that have served them well in domestic markets as they extend into foreign markets. Any sales incentives, however, do not fit in overseas markets due to cultural variations.

    Consumer-Oriented Sales Promotions

    Consumer-oriented promotional deals may provide incentives provided by retailers to customers, such as half-off vouchers from the neighborhood pizza parlor. Short-term price cuts, double vouchers sold at the grocery store, or promotional features, such as an optional pie topping for an order of $10 or more for a limited period, are also examples of retail deals (Alvarez & Schwenk, 2013).

    Business-Oriented Sales Promotions

    Manufacturers, raw materials vendors, parts manufacturers, or business goods or service suppliers supplying to other companies provide wholesalers and dealers off-invoice discounts, merchandise credits, and advertising allowances.

    Sales Promotions Methods

    There are several strategies for promoting purchases. Price reductions have a discount on the regular retail price or a larger quantity of the product at the normal retail price. Using till coupons as part of the customer’s receipt, coupons are used to facilitate repeat purchases of a particular product or at a specific shop (Alvarez & Schwenk, 2013). Many stores and distributors employ competitions and prizes in innovative ways, including being subject to legal constraints. Customers are encouraged to choose the same carrier through repeat passenger and loyalty offers, such as frequent flier services.

    Other Goals for Sales Promotions

    Beyond stimulating demand in the immediate term, a profitable promotional promotion could have one or more targets. When a new product is launched to the market or generates interest in a product in a competitive field, a promotional campaign may help raise product awareness (Nazari, van der Rest & Mira, 2020). A promotional incentive will also give needed information to the customer by providing a complimentary trial period on such goods.

    Measuring Success

    The most common way to assess the effectiveness of a promotional campaign is to compare retail sales during the promotion to sales when there was no promotion.


    Alvarez, J. & Schwenk, V. (2013). How Sales Promotions Change Over Time. Retrieved from https://0624jc8pc-mp02-y-https-search-proquest-com…

    Jiang, H. & Ma, J. (2018). Effects of Internet Sales Promotion on a Differential Advertising Model. Retrieved from https://0624jc8pc-mp02-y-https-search-proquest-com…

    Nazari, M., van der Rest, J. & Mira, S. (2020). Customer engagement in sales promotion. Retrieved fro

    3-Hello class,

    Sales promotions are incentives that businesses give clients so they go and buy their products or services. We have all seen the BOGO “buy one get one free” promotions, or the “if you become a member today you will get 20% or two-days free shipping, or the 50% off coupons if you spend certain amount of money. All these different sales can be seen at the stores, on websites, or on your mail. Sales promotion have the purpose to inspire more purchases, but businesses also used them to drive excitement about their products or services. For people who like to travel a lot, there is a great sales promotion called “Loyalty Programs”. With these programs, returning clints get free upgrades, free bag checked, early access to the plane, and points that can be used to lower flights fare. Just to name a few (Chaharsoughi, & Yasory, 2012)

    Airlines do this to get their consumers to select them every time and not go with the competition. But people ask themselves how is that airlines can still make money when they are sometimes losing money by offering these promotions to their customers. The truth is that airlines think that to offer these loyalty programs is worthy because these clients that flight 20 or more times per year, will do it with their airlines. These promotions really inspire loyalty, which is what businesses want. The only goal is not to make a sale, but to keep the customers wanting to come back. Sales promotions help to stablish long-time relationships with consumers (Familmaleki, Aghighi, & Hamidi, 2015).

    A tactic that companies use is Product Placement where they pay to get their product in front of the audience. We have all seen it in movies when we see Charlize Theron in the movie “Atomic Blonde” drinking a “stoli” referring to a “Stolichnaya” Vodka, or Spiderman drinking a Dr. Pepper. People watching these movies might feel drawn to get one of those drinks. Sometimes companies might use product placement just to show people how to use that particular product. Overall, all these strategies are implemented to drive sales, because sometimes people do not need what they are buying, but might end up makingthe purchase anyway. They might even feel excited about the purchase because it felt like they were saving money or got a good value, even if they did not need it and were just impulse-buying (Familmaleki, Aghighi, & Hamidi, 2015).


    Chaharsoughi, S. A., & Yasory, T. H. (2012). Effect of sales promotion on consumer behavior based on culture. African journal of business management, 6(1), 98-102.

    Familmaleki, M., Aghighi, A., & Hamidi, K. (2015). Analyzing the influence of sales promotion on customer purchasing behavior. International Journal of Economics & management sciences, 4(4), 1-6.


    Sales promotions are a marketing communication tool for stimulating revenue or providing incentives or extra value to distributors, sales staff, or customers over a short time period. Sales promotion activities include special offers, displays, demonstrations, and other nonrecurring selling efforts that aren’t part of the ordinary routine. Companies use sales promotions to increase demand for their products and services, improve product availability among distribution channel partners, and coordinate the selling, advertising, and public relations. There are two types of sales promotions: consumer and trade. A consumer sales promotion targets the consumer or end-user buying the product, while a trade promotion focuses on organizational customers that can stimulate immediate sales (“Sales Promotions”, n.d.).

    According to (“What are the different Sales Promotion tools?”, n.d.), the marketers need to choose the right sales promotion tool to reach their audience. Below are the major promotion tools directed towards consumers:

    • Free samples: The manufacturer offers free samples to consumers in various ways doing door-to-door visits, retail stores, malls, attached to another product, etc. The purpose is to gain new customers or enter into a new market.
    • Exchanges: Customer are asked to submit the old product, and a new product is offered at a new price.
    • Sales promotion letters: Sent to buyer’s homes and offices giving information on promotion activity or information on the products.
    • Coupons: These are certificates by which a buyer can buy a product at a reduced price. These are mailed, accompanied by other products, with newspapers or magazines, or even direct mail. This helps consumers and the dealers as they are required to stock the product because of an increase in demand.


    Sales Promotions (n.d.) Retrieved from…

    What are the different Sales Promotion tools? (n.d.) Retrieved from


    Nova Southeastern University

    FIRST POST          

    Based off the case scenario information provided, it is likely the 30-year-old woman’s rash is a result of allergic contact dermatitis, induced by contact with poison ivy. In contact dermatitis, one forms a rash caused by an immune reaction to an antigen that touches the skin. In this patient’s case the antigen is poison ivy. Contact dermatitis results because the antigens is recognized and induces a cell-mediated response. However, there will be no result in primary contact with the antigen because the antigens are sensitizing an immune response and are producing memory T cells, which explains why the patient never developed a reaction or rash when she was exposed to poison ivy the first time (McCance & Huether, 2019). When exposed to the antigen a second time, it activates a response and dermatitis due to a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The allergic reaction to poison ivy may occur within 24 to 72 hours after exposure (John Hopkins Medicine, 2021). The contact with poison ivy causes itchy, red rashes, that blister, ooze, and crust over, just as the patient described (Adler & DeLeo, 2021). The rash also presents at the areas of direct skin contact, but they may spread, like presented in this case (John Hopkins Medicine, 2021). The rash may also take weeks to heal. Common causes of contact dermatitis are other allergens such as moisturizers, shampoos, or other personal care products, metals, topical medications, or plants as in this scenario. A risk factor for a poison ivy contact dermatitis reaction, in particular, would be those who participate in outdoor activities, such as hiking. One can avoid the condition by familiarizing themselves with plants that should be avoided and wearing clothing that covers such as pants, socks and gloves when outdoors. Since the oil from poison ivy can stay on clothing it is also important to always clean clothing and shoes after being outdoors, as well as washing skin immediately if one comes in contact (John Hopkins Medicine, 2021). For contact dermatitis, in general, one should stay away from the substances that cause them an allergic reaction and can seek treatment to alleviate symptoms due to the reaction.


    SECOND POST        

    Contact Dermatitis

    In the patient’s data, there is no history of atopy or related symptoms. Therefore, the condition cannot be atopic dermatitis even though some of its symptoms are present in the information provided. Since it involves the scalp and the face, the condition cannot be seborrheic dermatitis, though some of the symptoms mentioned are like that of the disease. The APRN can rule out a fungal infection because the pace of the development of the rash is too high and is consistent with that of dermatitis. Scabies is also ruled out because the disease has not progressed to the intertriginous areas. Even though the symptoms point to several diseases, some features provide strong evidence for contact dermatitis.  One of them is a pattern of development of the condition in exposed areas of the body (Murphy, Atwater, & Mueller, 2020). The second one is a streaked appearance, while the final feature is recent exposure to a suspicious antigen known as poison ivy. Therefore, the possible condition is contact dermatitis.

    The condition’s pathophysiology begins with skin contact with an allergen that penetrates the skin’s stratum corneum part. Upon reaching the stratum corneum, the allergen is taken up by the Langerhans cells, and when the cells process them, they get displayed on the cell’s surface (Murphy, Atwater, & Mueller, 2020). Subsequently, the cells migrate in the direction of the regional lymph nodes, and the antigens on the cells’ surface encounter the nearby T-lymphocytes (Murphy, Atwater, & Mueller, 2020). The process of clonal expansion occurs together with cell proliferation induced by cytokines, leading to the creation of antigen-specific T-lymphocytes, which travel through the blood and reach the epidermis (Murphy, Atwater, & Mueller, 2020). The process is referred to as the sensitization phase. “Contact dermatitis is type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which requires prior exposure to the allergen” (Carle, 2021). When one is exposed again to the same antigen, the second cytokine-induced proliferation process creates a localized inflammatory response, resulting in an eruption.

    The condition has several clinical manifestations. The most common ones are hives and oozing blisters, and the presence of dry, flaky, and scaly skin.  People with contact dermatitis also have skin that seems leathery or darkened (Murphy, Atwater, & Mueller, 2020). In some people, the skins appear red. A burning sensation can be felt on the skin in most cases, while almost everyone who contracts the disease experiences extreme itching. People with contact dermatitis are sensitive to the sun and may experience swelling, especially in the face, groin region, or eyes (Murphy, Atwater, & Mueller, 2020).  The above symptoms are for contact dermatitis that arises from an allergy. However, there is another form of the disease known as irritant contact dermatitis. Some of its clinical manifestations include extreme skin dryness, which leads to cracks, formation of blisters, tight or stiff skin, swelling, and ulcerations.  Some people may have open sores that lead to the formation of crusts.

    Contact dermatitis is caused by skin contact with a substance to which one is sensitive. These substances are known as allergens, and they trigger an immune reaction that affects the skin. Some of the allergens include nickel, antibiotic creams, poison ivy, oral antihistamines, balsam of Peru, ragweed pollen, and spray insecticides. Diapers, wet wipes, and sunscreens can expose babies to contact dermatitis (Murphy, Atwater, & Mueller, 2020).  The main risk factor is jobs that expose people to allergens. Healthcare workers, metal workers, cosmetologists and hairdressers, gardeners, cleaners, cooks, auto mechanics, and construction workers are at a high risk of contracting the disease.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1- Hi Class,

    The idea of having an International Monetary Fund started in July 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire where 44 nations agreed to rebuild Europe after World War II.  The IMF was born in 1946 in Washington, D.C. 39 countries members. Furthermore, the IMF role is to encourage international monetary cooperation through a permanent institution which provides the machinery for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems. Also, the IMF can ease the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, and to pay thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of employment and real income and to the development of the productive resources of all members as primary objectives of economic policy. In addition to, the IMF helps exchange stability, to maintain orderly exchange arrangements among members, and to avoid competitive exchange depredation. Fourth, the IMF supports in the establishment of a multilateral system of payments in respect of current transactions between members and in the elimination of foreign exchange restrictions which hamper the growth of world trade. Lastly, they transfer confidence to members by making the general resources of the Fund temporarily available to them under adequate safeguards, thus providing them with opportunity to correct maladjustments in their balance of payments without resorting to measures destructive of national or international prosperity (Fieleke, 1994).

    In addition to, the IMF provides loans to members that cannot payout their debts; however, they will also come to their members and assist them to fix their monetary troubles. As a result, the IMF will get back their money and be an institution of guidance and cooperation against poverty and poor financial planning.


    Fieleke, N. S. (1994, September-October). The International Monetary Fund 50 years after Bretton Woods. New England Economic Review, 17+.…

    2-During the 1930s, the Great Depression brought about bombing economies. The fall of the highest quality level drove nations to raise exchange obstructions, downgrade their monetary standards to contend with each other for send out business sectors and reduce use of unfamiliar trade by their residents. Every one of these components prompted declining world exchange, high joblessness, and plunging expectations for everyday comforts in numerous nations. In 1944, the Bretton Woods Agreement set up another worldwide financial framework. The formation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank were two of its most suffering inheritances (Lipscy, 2015).

    The World Bank and the IMF, frequently called the Bretton Woods Institutions, are twin intergovernmental columns supporting the structure of the world’s monetary and budgetary request. Both have taken on growing jobs, and there have been recharged requires extra development of their obligations, especially in the proceeding with nonattendance of a solitary worldwide money related arrangement. The two organizations may appear to have confounding or covering capacities. Be that as it may, while a few similitudes exist, they are two unmistakable associations with various jobs. 

    The designers of the Bretton Woods Agreement, John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White, imagined an organization that would direct the global financial framework, trade rates, and worldwide installments to empower nations and their residents to purchase products and ventures from one another. They expected that this new worldwide element would guarantee conversion scale solidness and urge its part nations to dispose of the trade limitations that obstructed exchange. Authoritatively, the IMF appeared in December 1945 with 29 part nations. 

    In 1947, the organization’s first proper year of activities, the French turned into the primary country to get from the IMF. Throughout the following thirty years, more nations joined the IMF, remembering some African nations for the 1960s (Fioretos& Heldt, 2019). The Soviet alliance countries remained the special case and were not part of the IMF until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The IMF encountered another enormous increment in individuals during the 1990s with the expansion of Russia; Russia was additionally positioned on the IMF’s leader panel. Today, 187 nations are individuals from the IMF; 24 of those nations or gatherings of nations are spoken to on the leader board(Fioretos & Heldt, 2019).


    Fioretos, O., & Heldt, E. C. (2019). Legacies and innovations in global economic governance since Bretton Woods. Review of International Political Economy, 26(6), 1089–1111.

    Lipscy, P. Y. (2015). Explaining institutional change:?: policy areas, outside options, and the Bretton woods institutions. American Journal of Political Science, 59(2), 341–356.

    3-excellent input in this week discussion, in the summary of your argument; according to Salvatore (2016), the IMF initially had three primary functions: overseeing a system of pegged (but adjustable) exchange rates, promoting currency convertibility to foster international trade, and acting as lender of last resort for countries facing short term balance of payments crises. Some of these functions have changed, but the original goals remain surprisingly unaltered. The Special Drawing Right (SDR) is an international reserve asset created by the IMF to supplement existing foreign exchange reserves. It serves as a unit of account for the IMF and other international and regional organizations and is the base against which some countries peg the exchange. 

    The IMF no longer presides over a system of fixed exchange rates, as documented in Brigham and Ehrhardt (2016), since no such system exists. However, it still aims to monitor the world’s monetary system and provide financial support (attached policy conditions). In addressing your issues on the Bretton Woods, according to Brigham and Ehrhardt (2016), the currency arrangement negotiated at Bretton Woods and monitored by the IMF worked well during the post-WWII era of reconstruction and growth in world trade. However, widely diverging monetary and fiscal policies, differential inflation rates, and various currency shocks resulted in its demise. The U.S. dollar became the primary reserve currency held by central banks, resulting in a consistent and growing balance of payments deficit, which required a substantial capital outflow of dollars to finance these deficits and meet the growing demand for dollars from investor’s businesses. Eventually, foreigners’ substantial overhang of dollars resulted in a lack of confidence in the U.S.’s ability to meet its commitment to convert dollars to gold. The lack of confidence forced President Richard Nixon to suspend official purchases or sales of gold by the U.S. Treasury on August 15, 1971. Has the IMF lost its relevance to the world’s wealthiest countries from the literature you have read thus far?


    Brigham, E. F. & Ehrhardt, M. C. (2016). Financial management: Theory and practice. (13th Ed.). Mason, OH: Southwestern Cengage Learning.

    Salvatore, D. (2016). Introduction to International Economics. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


    Nova Southeastern University

            Fixed Exchange Rates Increase Corporate Currency Risk in Emerging Markets because the markets usually in the Global Risk affect the currencies because a higher risk among market participants leads to inflows of capital into emerging markets, which results in an appreciation of their exchange rates (Chan, 2015). The unique position of the US dollar in the international monetary system also plays an important role. Some abrupt swings in emerging market exchange rates are typically linked to capital outflows, tighter financing conditions, and heightened financial instability. Financial instability can be the cause the various 

           The drivers in these movements, however, will be determined by the relative strengths of these currencies. This box presents a methodology in which are held to separating these currencies (Nakamura, 2016). The drivers of emerging market exchange rate swings; spillovers from interest rate effects and idiosyncratic domestic shocks. It uses the methodology to analyze the factors behind the sharp depreciation and subsequent recovery of emerging market rate exchange rate swings. As well as the alterations in which the exchange rates represent for the interest rates and the corporate currency will be at risk of default or not meet the standards of the company in their respective emerging markets. 

           As well as the increase in Corporate Currency Risk in emerging markets does have effects when it is regarded in the sense of the Fixed Exchange Rates Increases in currency risk.  It creates a vital sense of how correlations since they’re fixed interest rates, cannot be changed (Helísek, 2019). This could cause corporate currency risk in emerging markets as the fixed rates must be fluctuated and be adjusted to meet specific needs and criteria for corporations and their emerging markets. With adjusting the interest rates in several countries there will be a greater result on the basis of the corporate currency risk which in emerging markets will fluctuate and the interest rates need to fluctuate accordingly (Nakamura, 2016). 


    Chan, M. S. (2015). REAL EXCHANGE RATE ADJUSTMENTS TO FOREIGN EXCHANGE INFLOWS IN A FIXED EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEM. Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 16(2), 61-89. https://prx-


    Eiteman, D. K., Stonehill, A. I., & Moffett, M. H. (2021). Multinational Business Finance. Pearson Education Limited.

           Helísek, M. (2019). Exchange Rate Mechanism II and the risk of currency crisis – empiricism and theory. Journal of International

                           Studies, 12(1)…

    Nakamura, C. (2016). Exchange rate risks in a small open economy. Journal of Financial Economic Policy, 8(3), 348-363.…

    2-According to many economics and monetary policy advisors in East Asia, multinational corporations preferred to have fluctuating exchange rate to minimizes their risks exposure. MNE do not agree with fixed exchange rates since the foreign exchange (forex) market fluctuates a lot day to day. For example, between 2011 and 2013, some Southeast Asia nations-such as Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand-appeared to have adopted exchange rates regimes to keep their currencies relatively stable with respect to China’s renminbi (Martin, 2018). Moreover, East Asia countries adopted different types of exchange rates to benefit FDI. For example, free float policy helps a country increase their exchange rates. However, there is one option to peg their exchange rate to another currency to have advantages on U.S dollars reserves. For instance, Hong Kong’s three designated currency-issuing banks-The Bank of China, HSBC, and Standard Chartered Bank-must deposit with the Hong Kong Monetary Authority sufficient U.S.-dollar-denominated reserves to cover their issuance of Hong Kong dollars at the designated exchange rate of HKD 7.80 = USD 1.00 (Martin, 2018).

    On the other hand, lets talk about purchasing power parity theory. The main idea is that MNE can buy more goods and services at better exchange rates than a fixed exchange rate. For example, a Chinese wants to purchase planes from an American plane manufacturer and then one day the U.S government decides to put a fixed exchange rate on the Chinese (Yuan) compared to the U.S dollar. The MNE will not buy planes from the U.S manufacturer because this can represent on a disadvantage from the Chinese buyer. Just like an American trying to buy goods and services from any other country where they have the advantages to buy more products when the U.S dollar appreciates more than the foreign currency.

    Further, Edwards stated that in the 90s Milton Friedman printed an article comparing two countries Chile and Israel experiences. First, Chile fixed the exchange rate with respect to the US dollar in 1979. The dollar strengthened in global markets, and the terms of trade turned against Chile. On the other hand, when Israel fixed the value of the shekel in 1985, external shocks were promising when the price of oil dropped and a weakening of the U.S. dollar. An important difference between the two cases was that Israel undervalued the shekel by 20% before fixing it relative to the dollar. By doing this, it built a ‘cushion’ for real appreciation to take place without generating overvaluation. Chile instead fixed the exchange rate rigidly at a time when the peso was already overvalued (in 1979). Further, while Israel instituted income policies that included a temporary wages and prices freeze, Chile put in place a backward-looking wage indexation system that, with declining inflation, resulted in automatic increases in real wages (Edwards, 2020).


    Edwards, S. (2020, November 10). Exchange rate regimes in emerging countries. VOX, CEPR Policy Portal. Retrieved September 22, 2021, from

    Martin, M. F. (2018). EAST ASIA’S FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE POLICIES *. Current Politics and Economics of South, Southeastern, and Central Asia, 27(1), 31-47.….

    3-A fixed exchange rate is an exchange rate where the currency of one country is connected to the currency of another country or a frequently traded commodity like gold or oil so the two countries can trade freely and smoothly with each other (Carrieri et al., 2006). The major concern with fixed exchange rate is that it put limitations to a central bank’s possibility to adjust interest rates to impact a country’s growth rate. In addition, a fixed exchange rate can be maintained if the two countries collaborate with strict capital controls (Sullivan et al., 2006). 

    Foreign exchange risk is recognized besides market segmentation, as one of the most important factors of foreign investments and an international asset pricing (Sullivan et al., 2006). Therefore, the existence of currency risk is part of the major concerns faced by international investors because exchange rate volatility may reduce the benefits of international diversification (Sullivan et al., 2006). Moreover, investments in emerging capital markets are an important and growing source of funds for financing projects which contribute to the rapid pace of growth in emerging markets (Sullivan et al., 2006). 

    In emerging markets, there is not enough movement in the exchange rate adjustment term. Capital outflows from emerging markets are a result of both higher global risk and intensifying country fundamentals lead to larger interest rate differentials (Carrieri et al., 2006). Even though, there is an expected and actual depreciation as a result of such outflows, these are not enough to offset the interest rate differentials as the role played by the currency risk is more important (Carrieri et al., 2006). 


    Carrieri, F., & Majerbi, B. (2006, May). The pricing of exchange risk in emerging stocks markets. Journal of International Business Studies. 37(3). 372-391.

    Sullivan, M, A., & Dandapani, K. (2006). Currency risks in emerging markets. Journal of Managerial Finance. 22(2). 54-62.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1- A banker’s acceptance refers to a financial instrument that represents a promised future payment from a bank (Anderson, 2009). It states the name of the entity to which the funds need to be transferred, along with the amount and date of payment. Banker’s acceptance are short-term instruments that generally come with a maturity between 30 days and 180 days. The application process for a banker’s acceptance is similar to that short-term loan and involves various credit and collateral checks (Anderson, 2009).

    Acceptances arise most often in connection with international trade: U.S imports and exports and trade between foreign countries. An importer may request acceptance financing from its bank as is frequently the case in international trade (LaRoche, 2008). Once the importer and bank have completed an acceptance agreement, in which the bank agrees to accept drafts for the importer and the importer agrees to repay any drafts the bank accepts, then draws a time draft on the bank. In addition, the bank may hold the acceptance in its portfolio, or it may sell, or rediscount it in the secondary market (LaRoche, 2008).

    Moreover, an importer enters a transaction with the exporter from another country. The exporter is ready to supply the whole quantity until the port of the importer country. However, the exporter needs an assurance of payment (Anderson, 2009). On the other hand, the importer is doubtful whether the exporter will supply the goods with the correct quantity and of appropriate quality after the full payment is made to the exporter (Anderson, 2009).


    Anderson, R, G. (2009). Bankers’ acceptances: yesterday’s instrument to restart today’s credit markets? Economic Synopses. P 2-9. Bankers Acceptances: Yesterdays Instrument to Restart Todays Credit Markets? (

    LaRoche, R. (2008). Banker acceptance. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. p 128-129. Instruments of the Money Market (

    2-Hello, very good afternoon Professor and classmates,

    A banker’s acceptance, or BA, is a promised future payment, or time draft, which is accepted and guaranteed by a bank and drawn on a deposit at the bank. The banker’s acceptance specifies the amount of money, the date, and the person the payment is due (Eiteman, & Moffett, et., al.,2021). After acceptance, the draft becomes a total liability of the bank. The holder of the draft can sell (exchange) it for cash at a discount to a buyer who is willing to wait until the maturity date for the funds in the deposit.

    A banker’s acceptance starts as a time draft drawn on a customer’s bank deposit to pay money at a future date, typically within six months, analogous to a post-dated check.

    Next, the bank accepts (guarantees) payment to the holder of the draft, similar to a post-dated check drawn on a deposit with over-draft protection (Hogan & Pan, 2015). The party that holds the banker’s acceptance may keep the acceptance until it matures, allowing the bank to make the promised payment by a specific time frame (Eiteman & Stonehill, 2021). This may sell the approval at a discount today to any party willing to wait for the face-value payment of the deposit on the maturity date. The rates they trade, calculated from the discount prices relative to their face values, are bankers’ acceptance rates or discount rates, as they are also called (Arestis & Jia, 2020). With these discount rates, as well as the face values, are calculated precisely.

    The banker’s acceptance rate with a financial institution’s commission added in is called the all-in rate. Bankers’ acceptance is attractive to the exporter because they can sell these bankers’ acceptance to a discount as of the present and wait until the maturity date comes into play and the face value of the maturity date will rise (Hagiwara, 2019). It generates profits from the bank since the bank solicits a fee for this service. This way, the exporter generates money, and the banks that give out these bank acceptances (BA). With these bankers’ exchange rates, they have strong validity for both parties’ investment and profit. Therefore it is seen as attractive to the exporters.


    Arestis, P., & Jia, M. M. (2020). Financing housing and house prices in China. Journal of

    Financial Economic Policy, 12(4), 445-461.

    Eiteman, D. K., Stonehill, A. I., & Moffett, M. H. (2021). Multinational Business Finance. Pearson.

    Hagiwara, S. (2019). WHY DID THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 2008–2009 END IN

    THE GREAT RECESSION?: A Critical Comparison of the Great Depression and the Great

    Recession. World Review of Political Economy, 10(1), 24-39.


    Hogan, T. L., Meredith, N. R., & Xuhao (Harry) Pan. (2015). Risk-based capital regulation

    revisited: evidence from the early 2000s. Journal of Financial Regulation and

    Compliance, 23(2), 115-134.

    3-Hi Professor and classmates,

    To define a banker’s acceptance is basically a transaction that involves substituting a bank’s creditworthiness for a borrower. This instrument itself is one species of a bill of exchange; for example, an order to pay an amount of money at a specified time. Keep in mind that it is different from other bills because it bears the unconditional promise of a bank to pay the draft at maturity. Usually, a buyer does not pay cash for a delivery of goods but involves credit until the goods are sold. To an extend it presents a problem for a seller who is poorly equipped to appraise the creditworthiness of the buyer. In addition to, the seller may need immediate payment a bank familiar with the buyer’s business can act as an intermediary between the two trading partners by assuming the responsibility of making the payment for the goods on the buyer’s behalf (New York Fed, 1981).

    Since its greater ability to assess the buyer’s creditworthiness, the bank might be willing to assume the risk that the buyer may not be able to repay it. In a typical acceptance transaction, the bank guarantees payment by “accepting” a time draft drawn on it by the seller. By accepting such a time draft, the bank assumes an unconditional liability to pay the seller regardless of whether the buyer reimburses the bank or not. The bank specifies its willingness to do so by stamping the draft “accepted” and affixing the signature of an officer authorized to sign for the bank. If the bank is willing to provide its guarantee, it notifies the seller that a letter of credit has been issued on behalf of the buyer authorizing the seller to draw a draft on the bank for an indicated dollar amount (New York Fed,1981).

    This is win-win situation for all parties involved because they all secure a payment. For example, the buyer will have a line of credit for future transactions. The seller will secure an account receivable, and the bank will expand its earnings buy charging an interest to the buyer.


    New York Fed, (1981). Bankers’ acceptances. New York Fed. Retrieved October 21, 2021, from


    Nova Southeastern University

    1-Omar, thanks for your contribution to this week’s Discussion; your assessments are correct. According to Krugman et al. (2015), the central message concerning trade patterns of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory is that countries tend to export goods whose production is intensive in factors with which they are relatively abundantly endowed. For example, comparing the United States and Mexico, one can observe a relative abundance of capital in the United States and a relative abundance of labor in Mexico. Thus, goods that intensively use capital in production should be cheaper to produce in the United States, and those that intensively use labor should be cheaper to produce in Mexico. Krugman et al. (2015 also argue that, with trade, the United States should export capital-intensive goods like computers, while Mexico should export labor-intensive goods like textiles. With integrated markets, international trade should lead to a convergence of goods prices. Thus, the prices of capital-intensive goods in the United States and labor-intensive goods in Mexico will rise.

    Stolper-Samuelson theorem, as cited in Krugman et al. (2015), argues that owners of a country’s abundant factors (e.g., capital owners in the United States, labor in Mexico) will gain from trade, while owners of the country’s scarce factors (labor in the United States, capital in Mexico) will lose from trade. According to Krugman et al. (2015), the extension of this result is the Factor Price Equalization theorem, which states that trade in goods (and thus price equalization of goods) will lead to an equalization of factor prices. These income distribution effects are permanent, given that factor abundances do not quickly change within a country. Academically, the gains from trade could be redistributed such that everyone is better off; however, such a plan is challenging to implement in practice. What are some of the political implications of factor price regarding the Heckscher- Ohlin theory?


    Krugman, P. R, Obstfeld, M., & Melitz, M. J. (2015). International economics: theory and policy. 10th edition. Boston: Pearson.

    2-Hi Professor and classmates,

    The Heckscher-Ohlin trade model refers to the comparison of two countries with equal tastes, can produce goods, and services utilizing equal technology. For example, the United States and Canada, each country endowed with 2 homogeneous factors such as labor and capital and produce 2 commodities. HO model = 2x2x2 model (2 countries, 2 commodities, 2 factors). Following the same example, the NAFTA agreement between the US, Canada, and Mexico falls in the same trend. The NAFTA agreement came in place to ban restrictions imports and exports between these countries. However, it has been controversial for many political leaders like President Trump, Canadian prime minister, and Mexican president. For example, these countries produce automobiles like Honda, Toyota, and GMs. These auto plants have the same technologies, and the manufactures pay the same fees to make their cars. What I just explained about the automobiles is also known as intra-industry trade; for instance, if we buy a Honda CR-V model in Canada, the US or Mexico, it will have the same characteristics in each country. The only difference will be the price a customer will pay at the dealership based on the country’s currency. The Heckscher-Ohlin trade model can be extended among countries partnering and cross selling and buying goods and services that they need. For example, the European Union works together with the World Trade Organization to help set global trade rules and remove obstacles to trade between WTO members.


    Thompson, H. (1999). Definitions of factor abundance and the factor content of trade. Open Economies Review, 10(4), 385-393. Retrieved from…

    3-Hello, Class!

    The Heckscher-Ohlin model has for quite some time been the focal model of global exchange hypothesis, and it comprises of two nations, and two elements of creation. The model’s forecast with respect to exchange designs is that every nation will trade the decency that seriously utilizes the factor of creation it has in bounty, and will import the other great (Kapur, 2015). All the more accurately, the nation with higher relative extents of a specific info factor will have some expertise in creating the decency that seriously utilizes that factor, and import the other great. For instance, a nation with a high incompetent to gifted work proportion will spend significant time in and trade merchandise that all the more seriously utilize untalented work as a creation input. Thus, they will in general import the other great from the other nation, whose relative untalented to talented work proportion is actually the reverse. The Heckscher-Ohlin exchange model is revolved around the possibility that relative factor plenitude and force is the thing that drives exchange designs between nations.

    Lamentably, however this model is straightforward and gives effectively discernible forecasts, the expectations are not fulfilled by the observational information. In 1953, Wassily Leontief played out the principal trial of the Heckscher-Ohlin hypothesis utilizing United States exchange information from 1947 (Reyes, 2016). At the point when he directed his observational trial of the model he accepted that in 1947 the United States was capital plentiful comparative with the remainder of the world. As per the Heckscher-Ohlin model, Leontief’s examination ought to have brought about the United States sending out capital-serious products and bringing in labor-escalated merchandise, notwithstanding, his outcomes indicated the specific inverse pattern. This exact counterexample to the Heckscher-Ohlin model has been named “Leontief’s conundrum.” This oddity has caused a huge development in global exchange hypothesis to build up an all-encompassing form of the Heckscher-Ohlin model that is predictable with observational information.

    The Heckscher-Ohlin forecast can be examined however relapses relating the ability force of every industry to a lot of U.S. imports by industry. These relapses utilize definite product exchange information from 2005 and evaluations of factor power for every industry in the NAICS file from the 2002 Economic Census (Bond, Iwasa, Nishimura, Julien & Gomis-Porqueras, 2013). The model expect that there are no factor force inversions. Since factor shares are fixed for every industry, they can be positioned from least to most concentrated utilizing factor share information for only one nation.


    Bond, E. W., Iwasa, K., Nishimura, K., Julien, B., & Gomis-Porqueras, P. (2013). POVERTY TRAPS AND INFERIOR GOODS IN A DYNAMIC HECKSCHER-OHLIN MODEL. Macroeconomic Dynamics, 17(6), 1227-1251. doi:

    Kapur, B. K. (2015). A symmetric heckscher-ohlin model of endogenous growth. Journal of Economics, 116(3), 183-209. doi:

    Reyes, F. A. (2016). EQUILIBRIUM AND ECONOMIC POLICY IN W. LEONTIEF’S THEORY. Cahiers d’Économie Politique, 71, 203-217. Retrieved from…


    Nova Southeastern University

    Theme: How to become a millionaire in the USA

    The Researched Argument, 10-12 pages, double spaced, which brings together your understanding of the scholarship on a specific (business) ethical issue and your ability to articulate a response to that problem, should exhibit your ability to: 1) invent a sophisticated research question, problem, or issue, 2) undertake in-depth research that informs the question at hand, 3) derive a plausible soft-claim that seriously addresses your problem, and 4) suggest an even better question that prompts further thinking on the matter.Typically, the 1st Section of your writing includes:

    A Set-up for your Research Question, a brief lay-of the land narrative that provides a broad description of the problem at hand. This general comment shows what brings you to the issue, often by way of setting down the current scholarly debate, or by describing a scene from a film, book, or news event. “The themes of citizenship and community are being discussed in many quarters of the left today. This is no doubt a consequence of the crisis of class politics and indicates the growing awareness of the need for a new form of identification around which to organize the forces struggling for a radicalization of democracy.”The Problem as you see it, which hints at the Research Question itself. This brief narrative frames the issue at hand so that you can then ask a specific question for your research. “I believe that the question of political identity is crucial and that the attempt to construct citizens’ identities is one of the more important tasks of democratic politics. But there are many different versions of citizenship and vital issues are at stake in their contest. The way we define citizenship is intimately linked to the kind of society and political community we want.”The Research Question (#1 above) which can take the form of a stated problem (“In this essay I want to interrogate the ways ideology informs our identity-constructs”), or an actual question (“In what ways does ideology determine our identity?) This is the single most important component of your writing. With regard to transparency and effects on income, how should it behave?“How should we understand citizenship when our goal is both a radical and plural democracy? Such a project requires the creation of a chain of equivalence among democratic struggles, and therefore the creation of a common political identity among democratic subjects. For the term citizens to actually mean this and function in this way, what conditions must it meet?”The Research Method and a glimpse of your Researched Argument. This optional narrative shows how you plan to address the question through research, and how your argument will emerge from your findings.

    “These are the problems that I will address, and I will argue that the key task is how to conceive of the nature of the political community under modern democratic conditions. I consider that we need to go beyond the conceptions of citizenship of both the liberal and civic republican tradition while building on their respective strengths.”Typically, the 2nd Section of your writing includes:The Research (#2 above), which functions exclusively to address and inform your understanding of the question so that you can intelligently and carefully construct your soft-claimThis is the section in which you play an intellectual “ping-pong” match. Pose your question to the scholarly world (journals, books, culture, etc) What you read in your research (scholarly ideas) is then pinged to you What you process in your own mind (your re-construction of scholarship) is then ponged back to the scholarly world through different lensesRe-ping and Re-pong as necessaryThis section becomes the bulk of your writing (usually 6-7 references).Typically, the 3rd Section of your writing includes:

    When all is said and done in terms of your thoughtful research about the question at hand, the 3rdsection serves as the place for you to state your now-informed Soft Claim (#3 above) [and to offer further implications for new research on the topic (#4 above)].The “conclusion” you reach (your soft-claim) has to do with the research you have amassed, and is therefore not a sum-up (please!!!). It is, rather, a soft statement of your “position” on the issue, now that you have processed the research in your mind. It is by no means a definitive or absolute statement.It is your informed claim—it is your researched argument. Typically, the 4th Section of your writing includes:By offering Further Implications, you provide scholars who read your work a chance to think more about the issue and perhaps even advance your claims. Based on your Soft-Claim (#3 above), you are now able to suggest to your readers/scholars the “things to think about” to further advance the discussion regarding your initial question. (These further implications are to be taken up outside the pages of your essay).(Please use 1 of the 3 standard style guides for your essay—MLA, APA, or Chicago Manual) (Attach an Abstract as a separate page, single spaced, with your essay—it should immediately precede your full text—it is not counted, however, as a page of your actual essay).(Attach a Works Cited or Works Consulted or Bibliography page with your essay—it should immediately follow your full text—it is not counted, however, as a page of your actual essay).


    Nova Southeastern University

    1-Amazon’s Mission

    The purpose of Amazon’s mission statement is to inform customers of the type of service they should expect from the corporation. In many instances, the services provided go “above and beyond” the typical call of duty. Examples of these services include unparalleled shipping standards, access to a limitless variety of goods, and affordable pricing. The mission statement of Amazon is “We strive to offer our customers the lowest possible prices, the best available selection, and the utmost convenience” (Reynolds, 2021). Affordable pricing is available to consumers without compromising the quality of the goods. There are virtually no variations when receiving a good stored at an Amazon facility stateside or purchasing an item globally. Amazon has harnessed the affordability of global shipping rates which helps keep the cost of operations at a minimum. The competitive price and service is an Amazon competitive advantage.

    What seems like an ever-expansive variety of products is actually the key to Amazons increased levels of convenience. To satisfy “the best available selection” aspect of their mission statement, Amazon’s management team diversifies the range of goods and services in their online databases. With no brick-and-mortar locations, Amazon is afforded the opportunity to prioritize their consumer’s online shopping experience. In addition to how the company meets this component, Amazon collaborates with reliable stakeholders to ship all the orders of its customers fast, irrespective of their location (Reynolds, 2021). E-commerce marketplaces have transformed since their inception in the early 90s, and Amazon has shown that it’s the top tier – a resilient and long-lasting organization with persistent growth that defies the odds.

    Amazon’s Vision

    No matter the organization, a vision statement can provide and insight into where an organization wants to go. This vision shapes and guides the direction of the organization providing focus on desires and aspirations. Amazon’s vision statement idolizes the domination of the e-marketplace on an international level while providing consumers a rewarding shopping experience. Amazon’s vision statement is, “our vision is to be earths most customer centric company; to build a place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online” (Hull, 2012). This statement re-confirms the wishes of Amazon and the reputation it wants to earn by being a place where all consumers globally can feel content in all shopping experiences.

    To fulfill Amazon’s vision statement, leaders create a strategic plan accompanied by a culture that promotes the environment necessary to accomplish these aspirations. Amazon’s business culture showcases a customer centric organization where the customer takes precedence over all else. Amazon promotes the best versions of itself via remarkable sales and discounts to impress consumers through indirect customer loyalty. A key point within Amazon’s vision statement is the term “earth,” which shows their strong desire to move past domestic into a true global presence. This shows the true intent Amazon has and the extent to which the organization wants its impact to be experienced.

    Amazon’s Core Values

    To be nimble as a big company, you need to make decisions quickly, take risks, and be ready to fail – and you need to know the difference between experimental failure, which is good, and operational failure, which is not; to create – and maintain – an edge you need innovative people, and you need to empower them (Bezos, 2021). Empowerment and innovation can stem from well-established core values. Amazon has core values that are centered around consumer obsession, innovation, development, delivery results, and earning the trust of others. The strengths of these specific core values are easily identifiable as they show the critical commitment to building relationships with consumers. The strength of these values is closely connected to the desire of the team members to be inventive in what they create and illustrate to the customers. Amazon chooses to hire and develop, to the highest standards, the best employees that show the potential to best satisfy the needs of the organization, the consumer, and provide the best performance results.

    Amazon illustrates some of the best company values that cultivate a successful organization. Among these values are integrity, boldness, honesty, trust, accountability, commitment to customers, and passion. On the outside, it appears that Amazon has the right recipe in terms of core values and is void of missing elements. However, there is a chink in Amazon’s armor. Amazon has a management structure that promotes competition and high-performance levels where employees within a specific environment compete against one another to become the best. This could be the best innovator, salesman, customer relations representative, or even lineman/ factory worker. This type of competitive environment can promote and unhealthy work situation where the team members are forced to outperform one another. This can greatly reduce camaraderie among team members and increase hostility in a way that could reduce performance levels. In this instance, Amazon is leveraging core values for their own competitive advantage.

    Personal Core Values

    In a modern society, interpersonal interaction and emotional establishment through etiquette show a customized code of conduct and the norms within people’s life practices (Guangxiong, 2019). Most of my personal core values come from my upbringing and the relationship I have with the military. As I grew up, my environment, to include my family, instilled core values like creativity, courage, and concern for others. The older I got, I began to come into who I was going to be as a person and my core values expanded based off a belief system that I was now creating for myself. Fast forward to today, and I showcase a different set of values that the military instilled inside me. The purpose of the initial training in the Armed Forces, is to break down pre-existing values and beliefs systems, so the military can build you back up as the person they want and need you to be. From this experience, I gained core values like respect, diversity, security, connection, and humanity. Now that I’m out of the military and readjusted to civilian life, my personal core values are a mix of who I was before, and who I became after my relationship with the military. These values guide my behavior, charisma, and decision-making abilities.


    Bezos, J. (2021, August 27). How Amazon thinks about competition. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved November 11, 2021, from

    Guangxiong, Z. (2019). The Construction of Modern Etiquette from the Perspective of the Practice of Core Value. Jishou University of Social Sciences, 09(02), 32–38.

    Hull, P. (2012, December 19). Be visionary. think big. Forbes. Retrieved November 11, 2021, from

    Reynolds, T. (2021, January 27). Amazon mission statement 2021: Amazon Mission & Vision Analysis. Amazon Mission Statement 2021 | Amazon Mission & Vision Analysis. Retrieved November 11, 2021, from

    Word Count: 1118

    2-It is only beneficial to have a mission and vision statement for any firm. It is said that vision and mission are essential components to formulate a strategic plan for a company. The strategic planning success depends on the proper identification and creation of these two statements as they add a large part of the organization’s identity (Taiwo & Lawal, 2016). The vision statement expresses the company’s long-term goals. In the case of Microsoft Corporation, its vision statement says it goes is “to help people and businesses throughout the world realize their full potential” (Microsoft, n.d). We can tell that the company’s purpose is to make good changes for every single person. Microsoft’s goods are freely available to everybody, with no limits on who can use them. It defines itself by aiding clients in the development of their capabilities. Its mission statement states that its focus is “to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more” (Microsoft, n.d). This statement represents the company’s purpose. For Microsoft, its main focus is to help everyone go further than they already have achieved. The mission is important because it reflects the company’s culture and core values.

    One of Microsofts core values is to be inclusive of everyone. The firm represents this from the inside. For example, the company is well-known for enabling people of all capacities to work there, therefore recognizing their skills and abilities (Isac, Dobrin, Raphalalani, & Sonko, 2021). Not only are there products exclusively designed for people with learning differences, but Microsoft makes it a point to make its work environment accessible for everyone. Another core belief of Microsoft was clearly stated by its CEO when he expressed to every employee that they need to prioritize innovation that is centered on the core value of empowering others to “do more” (Ibarra & Rattan, 2018). This means the firm is committed to pushing for technology advancements and encourages everyone to strive for that as well.

    The strengths of its core values are that by not excluding anyone in its purpose, it is bound to receive more support from internal and external groups. Internally, because having employees satisfied and enthusiastic about working for the company creates a positive atmosphere thus a more loyal employee. Furthermore, promoting an innovative environment encourages and motivates employees to have a growth mindset and helps the company move forward technologically. On the other hand, the customers will reap the fruits of this work paying off with loyalty towards the brand. The company should highlight ethics in its core values as many successful companies have fallen into greedy malpractices. Specifically, companies that already have a large amount of market share within the industry, can have too much influence in certain sectors.


    Ibarra, H., & Rattan, A. (2018). Microsoft: instilling a growth mindset. London Business School Review, 29(3), 50-53.

    Isac, N., Dobrin, C., Raphalalani, L. P., & Sonko, M. (2021). Does Organizational Culture Influence Job Satisfaction? A Comparative Analysis of Two Multinational Companies. Revista de Management Comparat International, 22(2), 138-157.

    Taiwo, A. A., & Lawal, F. A. (2016). Vision and Mission in Organization: Myth or Heuristic Device?. The International Journal of Business & Management, 4(3).

    Microsoft. (n.d.). About. Retrieved November 3, 2021, from

    3-The company I have chosen for my business plan is Coca-Cola. The company’s flexible nature has allowed it to redefine its approach in the non-alcoholic market throughout its history. The company is ranked third in the world’s greatest brands, thanks to the high principles specified by the mission and vision statements. Coca-aim Cola’s mission is to refresh people’s minds, bodies, and spirits (Nsomba, 2021, p. 2). Part of the mission is to use brands and activities to stimulate moments of optimism and happiness and add value for making an impact. It maintains its legacy as it goes about its business. The company is committed to positively influencing both communities and individuals (Nsomba, 2021, p. 2). Several elements are missing from the mission statement. They make no mention of who their target market is or what their product is about.

    The vision statement of the Coca-Cola Company is to inspire each other to be the greatest they can be by creating a good working environment. The firm’s purpose and agent for transformation and developments are revealed in the vision statement; this is what it means to be a leader (Nsomba, 2021, p. 3). The vision statement indicates that they collaborate with a variety of investors and societies. They provide a variety of incentives to their clients in addition to the benefits and appealing beverage flavor. The company wants to work in a terrific environment where they can get the most out of others and help them achieve better (Nsomba, 2021, p. 3). Though they anticipate a brighter future, the vision statement does not provide many details concerning the plan. The phrase is more concerned with the present than with the future.

    Teamwork, leadership, enthusiasm, accountability, diversity, honesty, and excellence are among the company’s fundamental principles. It’s not just about surviving for a global corporation; it’s also about consistency if it wants to stay on top in the industry and worldwide (Pendergrast & Crawford, 2020, p. 11). Within the company, they must have a deep cultural value; this is their most important value. The Coca-Cola Company tries to revitalize and foster positive relationships with its facilities, share ideas, and establish a class (Pendergrast & Crawford, 2020, p. 12). Investors and employees feel like they’re a part of the firm when they have independence, which gives them the responsibility of running their own business.


    Nsomba, G. (2021). The Coca-Cola Company/Coca-Cola beverages Africa merger: Lessons for robust regional competition enforcement. The Antitrust Bulletin, 0003603X2110454.×211045436

    Pendergrast, M., & Crawford, R. (2020). Coke and the Coca-Cola Company. Decoding Coca-Cola, 11-32.


    Nova Southeastern University

    I’m working on a writing discussion question and need a reference to help me understand better.


    FIRST POST     

     Lou is showing signs of, Bronchitis which is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It causes a cough that often brings up mucus. It can also cause shortness of breath, wheezing, a low fever, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough can last for several weeks after the infection is gone.

    The same viruses that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people cough, or through physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dust, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis.

    Acute bronchitis is the result of acute inflammation of the bronchi secondary to various triggers, most commonly viral infection, allergens, pollutants, etc. Inflammation of the bronchial wall leads to mucosal thickening, epithelial-cell desquamation, and denudation of the basement membrane. At times, a viral upper respiratory infection can progress to infection of the lower respiratory tract resulting in acute bronchitis. (Tanner 2018)

    Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or acetaminophen to treat fever. A humidifier or steam can also help. You may need inhaled medicine to open your airways if you are wheezing. Antibiotics won’t help if the cause is viral. You may get antibiotics if the cause is bacterial.

    Two patient factors that can have lead the patient to this diagnosis could have been the bad cold she had 3 weeks ago as well as her social interactions due to her age most likely she has to be going out and working interacting with different people causing a higher risk for her especially with a low immune system due to the cold she had causing her to be at a higher risk to have contracted bronchitis or even atypical pneumonia.

    For those patients whose cough persists, the nurses should monitor for the possibility of atypical pneumonia or pneumonia that requires antibiotic therapy. In these cases, the nurse should arrange a follow-up visit with the clinical team for re-assessment. If an antibiotic is deemed necessary, the pharmacist should evaluate for drug-drug interaction and allergy prior to filling the prescription. If there are any concerns, the pharmacist should make the clinical team aware of potential problems before the drug is dispensed.


    Bai L, Su X, Zhao D, Zhang Y, Cheng Q, Zhang H, Wang S, Xie M, Su H. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute bronchitis in children: season and age as modifiers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018 May;72(5):426-433

    Tanner M, Karen Roddis J. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Nurs Stand. 2018 Feb 28;32(27):41-43.

    Pulia M, Redwood R, May L. Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Emergency Department. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2018 Nov;36(4):853-872.              


    Considering the patient is a healthy young female and does not smoke, the persistent cough most likely is bronchitis. Bronchitis can be classified as acute or chronic depending on the duration of the cough (Sharma et al., 2021). Cough is associated with various etiologies and clinical associations. Coughing is a reflex in which protects against foreign materials, that is part of the body’s immune system (Sharma et al., 2021). Since the patient has been coughing for three weeks, the patient is experiencing acute bronchitis. If cough persist for longer than three months the patient would need be evaluated by a specialist for further investigation.

    Acute bronchitis is a common respiratory illness in which its most prevalent symptom is a persist cough that usually last only three weeks. In some case, the cough can last several weeks and still be deemed acute and not chronic. Acute bronchitis is of viral etiology in majority of diagnoses however can at times be bacterial (Sharma et al., 2021). It is causes inflammation of the bronchial walls resulting in mucous thickening. The mucous thickening triggers reflexes to clear the secretions by coughing (Morley et al., 2020).

    Clinical manifestations of acute bronchitis vary. The most predominant symptom is a persistent cough usually productive. Other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and wheezing are also common (Smith et al., 2020).

    Risk factors in developing acute bronchitis include influenza, the common cold, allergens, and pollutants (Sharma et al.,2021). The patient presented, states she developed the cough after experiencing a bad cold, therefore the acute bronchitis developed from the illness.

    Although acute bronchitis is known to affect mostly children and the elderly due to a decrease in immunity (Sharma et al., 2021).  However, individuals of all ages can develop acute bronchitis. Factors such as age and behavior can greatly impact the development of bronchitis whether acute or chronic. For example, elderly individuals who are smokers are known to be at a higher risk. The patient presented is a female who states to be healthy, however due to behaviors such as social interactions may have worsened symptoms. The patient also should have obtained further medical advice to treat symptoms such as the use of a humidifier to loosen secretions. Since majority of cases are viral, antibiotics are not effective.


    Morley, V. J., Firgens, E. P. C., Vanderbilt, R. R., Yanmengqian Zhou, Zook, M., Read, A. F., MacGeorge, E. L., & Zhou, Y. (2020). Factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis at a university health center. BMC Infectious Diseases, 20, 1–14.…

    Sharma S, Hashmi MF, Alhajjaj M.(2021)Cough. State Pearls Publishing.

    Smith, M. P., Lown, M., Singh, S., Ireland, B., Hill, A. T., Linder, J. A., & Irwin, R. S. (2020). Acute Cough Due to Acute Bronchitis in Immunocompetent Adult Outpatients: CHEST Expert Panel Report. CHEST, 157(5), 1256–1265.… 


    Nova Southeastern University



    In my past experiences, I have observed a complete fracture on my nephew as he is a 17-year-old football player in high school and had a sports injury on his tibia bone and it seemed to be a spiral fracture, the signs, and symptoms he showed were bone stiffness, restricted range of motion, and swelling as well as redness, tenderness, and pain. Due to the type of fracture physical therapy was completed in order for him to recover and the stages of bone healing were completed.

    The following is the bone healing process that took place Hematoma formation, the force that breaks the bone will also rupture blood vessels. This results in hematoma formation (Clot formation). This takes place for a few hours and days Granulation tissue formation, after few hours or few days, the cell such as macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells will infiltrate the bones. This will make the formation of granular tissue, in the growth of vascular tissue and migration of mesenchymal cells. Callus formation As the vascular ingrowth progressing the collagen matrix is laid down on the injury along with osteoid secretion and mineralization. This results in the formation of a soft callus around the injury. This takes place for 4-6 weeks of the healing process. Consolidation a woven bone is laid down on the callus but after it is replaced by lamellar bone. This process can take months. Remodeling the healed lamellar bone aligns themselves in the direction of the forces acting on them and the remaining bits of bones are reabsorbed. His healing process took place within 8-10 weeks with proper rehab and nutrition due to him not having any factors that impaired his healing process.

    Closed fractures can be simple (a clean break with little damage to the surrounding tissue) or open (a break in which the bone pierces the skin with little damage to the surrounding tissue). Most open fractures are emergencies. One that breaks the skin is especially dangerous because there is a high risk of infection. (Zaki 2020)

    Bone-building cells called osteoblasts contribute mineral that changes to bone, and the new bone fills in the break, strengthening with time. Nicotine from cigarettes interferes with this process, causing smokers’ bones to take longer to heal

    Cigarette smoking has a negative impact on the skeletal system, causes a decrease in bone mass in both young and old patients, and is considered a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. In addition, it disturbs the bone healing process and prolongs the healing time after fractures. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoking impairs fracture healing are not fully understood. (Chang 2020)


    Chang, C. J., Jou, I. M., Wu, T. T., Su, F. C., & Tai, T. W. (2020). Cigarette smoke inhalation impairs angiogenesis in early bone healing processes and delays fracture union. Bone & joint research, 9(3), 99–107.… (Links to an external site.)

    Zaki, P., Khakimov, S., Hess, J., & Hennrikus, W. (2020). Femur, Tibia, and Fibula Fractures Secondary to Youth Soccer: A Descriptive Study and Review of the Literature. Cureus, 12(5), e8185.


    In my past clinical experience, I witnessed multiple injuries in which resulted in various bone fractures. However, one experience that I vividly remember was that of a 19-year-old male who suffered an open-shaft fracture (compound fracture) of the tibia during a motorcycle accident. Per Elniel and Giannoudis (2018), open fractures of the tibia are the most common open long bone fractures. On examination, the open fracture was accompanied by extensive soft tissue loss and bone damage. After radiographs were completed, it showed a complex multi-segmented displaced tibia fracture. With such severity, the patient showed signs and symptoms of localized pain of the affected leg, visible areas of swelling, inability to bear weight, bruising, changes in sensation, and bleeding upon arrival (Pizzolo et al., 2018). Treatment included stabilization with external fixation, debridement, irrigation, and antibiotic therapy. Due to the severity of the injury, healing took 16 weeks with continuous physical therapy being performed.

    The stages of bone healing are as follows:

    (1) Hematoma formation begins immediately following a fracture and the hematoma clots and forms the temporary frame for subsequent healing, (2) fibrocartilaginous callus formation in which chondrogenesis begins to occur, laying down a collagen-rich fibrocartilaginous network, (3) hard, calcified callus of immature bone forms, (4) replacement, and (5) remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts (McCance, 2019). The bone healing process can take months to years to see significant changes and this timeframe is dependent on numerous of factors (Karpouzos et al., 2017).

    For example, smoking is one factor that impairs the process of bone healing. According to Chang et al. (2020), studies have shown that “cigarette smoke alters fibroblast migration and survival, which is essential for callus formation, contains inhibitors of chondrogenesis and inhibits osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of human osteoprogenitor cells.” These studies all affect stages in bone healing process. Smoking not only affects the healing process however also primarily places individuals at risk for fractures to begin with. Individuals suffering from fractures who are smokers, must be educated on the importance of stopping for appropriate healing to occur. Other factors such as proper nutrition play a crucial role in successful bone healing.


    Chang, C. J., Jou, I. M., Wu, T. T., Su, F. C., & Tai, T. W. (2020). Cigarette smoke inhalation impairs angiogenesis in early bone healing processes and delays fracture union. Bone & Joint Research, 9(3), 99–107.…

    Elniel, A. R., & Giannoudis, P. V. (2018). Open fractures of the lower extremity. EFORT Open Reviews, 3(5), 316–325.

    Karpouzos, A., Diamantis, E., Farmaki, P., Savvanis, S., & Troupis, T. (2017). Nutritional Aspects of Bone Health and Fracture Healing. Journal of Osteoporosis, 2017, 1–10.

    McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby Elsevier.

    Pizzolo, S., Testa, G., Papotto, G., Mobilia, G., di Stefano, G., Sessa, G., & Pavone, V. (2018). Open tibial fracture in a non-compliant patient. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 3(3), 44.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1- Hello, good afternoon Professor and classmates,

    The capital budgeting structures differ differently from the regular expenditures companies make during their operating cycle. The dissimilarities include the amounts of money spent and how long investments are expected to generate returns. Capital budgeting most often uses periods more significant than a year. Money invested in facilities or revenue-generating equipment requires capital budgeting calculations to be done precisely and precisely (Mubashar & Yasir, 2019). Religious groups and political groups may have a grande impact on the say of such companies which the MNC’s may have capital assets in politically unstable countries, making accurate relocations of assets and decisions with critical conditions on a global standpoint (Eiteman, & Stonehill et el., 2021).

    The political upheaval and the political stability of a country depend on and differs on the different impacts of borrowing costs, regulations, taxes for businesses. Kickbacks and other forms of corruption have severe repercussions for MNC’s. For example, Turkey has experienced several economic and political setbacks that raised borrowing for the national government. In corruption allegations, the compressing of the conditions and financial volatility within the country made it more challenging for corporate entities to operate their an effective fashion (Bellamy, & Matteo et al., 2019) In the political risk is the influence of political decisions in which might have risk factors too that the government of in which the multinational companies or located in.

    Political risks are inevitable and should be corresponded and acted upon promptly with only the most adequate manners necessary in which in some wide variety of cases causes the government to seize property adequately to seize property and necessary compensating powers in which are instrumental in the distribution of products and the continuing process in which continues to demand more in countries in which do experience less of an economical backup or is suffering recession’s in their midst (Kengatharan, 2018). The political risks such as a way of believing in a way can affect the multinational capital budgeting by acquiring or finding the need to buy certain products because of the sanctions and exportation risks in analyzations from political parties from within the country.


    Bellamy, R., Matteo, B., Dario, C., Lacey, J., Näsström Sofia, Owen, D., & White, J. (2019). The

    Democratic Production of Political Cohesion: Partisanship, Institutional Design, and Life

    Form. Contemporary Political Theory, 18(2), 282-310.


    Eiteman, D. K., Stonehill, A. I., & Moffett, M. H. (2021). Multinational Business Finance. Pearson.

    Kengatharan, L. (2018). Corporate Finance Practices in Sri Lanka. Asian Economic and

    Financial Review, 8(3), 406-423.

    Mubashar, A., & Yasir, B. T. (2019). Capital budgeting decision-making practices: evidence

    from Pakistan. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 16(2), 142-167.

    2-Hi Professor and Classmates,

    As companies or multinational corporations there are a few things or variables that can prevented or planned for, or not. Thanks to Globalization and other technologies the world has evolved and MNEs are only left with two options, which are either to plan and mitigate for political risks or buy insurance for it while doing business in risky zones like Venezuela, Cuba, or places dictators have control over their economies. To begin, we can define political risk as actions that can impact a MNE negatively; for example, no revenues made due to a political riot like Latam American countries have experienced since the 50’s. Furthermore, at a higher-level government can seize property without paying its owners a single dime, or a total expropriation (or nationalization) for the MNEs factories. For example, the Turkish government has targeted those domestic companies associated with the Gulen movement, which it claims was behind the attempt back in 2016. The actions have included arbitrary impositions of regulatory requirements up to outright expropriation. The impact to Canadian companies has been that they have needed to add a further level of counterparty due diligence to any business dealings with Turkish companies to determine their relationship with the government (Tobman, 2021).

    Moreover, according to Ji and Wang sufficient evidence suggests that MNEs under strong government regulations hurt the economic effects of political connections, which not only leads to competitive disadvantages and loss of innovation, but also less willingness to take risk. For example, back in 2008 the Chinese government proclaimed new policies to regulate government officials concurrently holding the positions of independent directors in firms. State-owned or government related MNEs by nature have political connections. The government not only appoints directors to the board, but also management. Furthermore, the government may have the authority to assign retired officials as independent directors. Consequently, due to strict governmental regulations in industries and high state ownership in firms, Chinese companies tend to establish political connections for the purposes of reducing governmental checkups and getting more government resources. As a result of this, MNEs loss control of their companies, and the Chinese government took over (Ji & Wang, 2018).


    Tobman, I. (2021, August 9). 3 types of political risks and how to manage them. EDC. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from

    Ji, S., & Wang, G. Y. (2018). Political Connections, Government Regulations and Risk-Taking–Evidence From China. Frontiers of Economics in China, 13(4), 655+.…

    3- “Capital budget is a financial tool that will help you estimate the value, and the profitability of the projects are compared by the discounting their cash flows by the relative risk factor(Rodeck, 2016).” The risk of the budget can increase the project risk, the current market risk, and any international risk exposure. When you are investing a budget analysis will allow you to compare the present value of each project which is based on the projected cash flows and their timelines. It has been advised that you discount each project’s cash flow with the rate of return. Each project is required to have a rate of return between the combination of your cost of capital plus and the additional return for the riskiness of that project. Keep in mind the risker a project is the higher rate will need to be.

    Some risks may be a long-term investments. Project risk weighs the chance that a project may not be as profitable as you would have due to errors from the company or the project itself. If you decide to invest in a company or project that isn’t in your areas of expertise you increase that risk. For example, if you have a business in clothing and decide to invest in a restaurant you are increasing your project risk. This is because you are investing in an unfamiliar area. If you are doing business in a different country, you are increasing your risk and now you have international risk. When you are dealing with the international risk you are dealing with the political and exchange-risk of the project. Depending on the country the project is based in will typically depend on the political structure, civil or political unrest. These factors alone will determine if an investment is worth it or if it would be lost.

    The world is constantly changing especially in the global world. “Debenedetti said, “The ever-changing dynamics of the global politics can wreak havoc on economic conditions that are solid investments into financial disasters(DeBenedetti, 2016).” MNC(multinational corporations) have to know and mitigate the political risk to avoid losing any profit. The stability of a country plays a huge role in budgeting. The political stability country would include the borrowing cost, taxes, and regulation of the business. Political risk plays a huge role in capital budgeting. It’s important to understand the risk of the current state of a country and the project risk along with any other risk that may be involved. Each factor is like a chain effect one will affect the other.


    DeBenedetti, J. (2016, September 29). How political risk affects capital budgeting in multinational companies. Your Business. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from

    Rodeck, D. (2016, October 26). What factors increase the riskiness of a capital budgeting project? Small Business – Retrieved October 13, 2021, from


    Nova Southeastern University



    Pathophysiology of Down syndrome:

    Down syndrome is a genetic disorder, formally know as Mongolism or trisomy 21 in which a third chromosome 21 is present, it is also the most common chromosome abnormality in humans (Akhtar, F., & Bokhari, S. A.,2020). This genetic disorder is seen in 1 in 800 live births, and individuals with this disorder often times have an IQ between 25- 70 (Most people have an IQ from 85-110) (McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E., 2019). Presence of this partial chromosome results as a cell division of chromosome 21, and can also be a full chromosome 21 (Down syndrome, 2018). The extra chromosome occurs due to failure of chromosome 21 separating during gametogenesis (Akhtar, F., & Bokhari, S. A.,2020). This extra chromosome results in development, behavior and physical changes in the individual. The severity varies for this disorder and can also be determined with several factors such as early therapy in order to assist with learning disabilities. According to McCance & Huether (2019), by the age of 40 individuals with Down syndrome start showing symptoms similar to those of Alzheimer patients because the gene causing Alzheimers disease is located on chromosome 21.

    Some common signs and physical attributes of individuals with Down syndrome are distinctive facial appearance such as low nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, protruding tongue, and flat low set ears (McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E., 2019). These individuals often times have poor muscle tone and short stature. The risk factors for the inheritance of down syndrome increases with the maternal age, women younger that 30 have a risk of 1 in 1000 births, the risk rises after 35 years of age and even higher after the age of 45 (McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E., 2019). Additionally, being a carrier for the genetic translocation of Down syndrome can be passed down to children (Down syndrome, 2018). Another risk factor is having an existing child with Down syndrome, in this case a genetic counselor can help parents assess for the risk of having another child with Down syndrome (Down syndrome, 2018).

    With the existing scenario, the ethical implications are finding out the reason for prescribing the birth control. If it is for contraceptive reasons and not hormonal concerns then we must talk to the patient themselves. being that they have cognitive delays making sure it is consensual sex would be important.


    Akhtar, F., & Bokhari, S. A. (2020). Down syndrome. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

    Down syndrome. (2018). Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

    McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.


    Down syndrome is defined as a genetic disorder that is caused by abnormal cell division that results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. This syndrome is the best example of aneuploidy, which is the occurrence of one or more extra or missing chromosomes that leads to an unbalanced amount of chromosomes. Some common signs and physical attributes of patients with Down Syndrome include, protruding tongues, low nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, flattened face, small head, short neck, and poor muscle tone (Down Syndrome, 2018). Most individuals with Down Syndrome tend to experience mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Pathological risk factors for the inheritance of down syndrome include an increase in maternal age, as well as if the parents are a carrier of the genetic translocation for down syndrome, another risk is if you already have a child with down syndrome. Since there is higher fertility rates in younger women, the chances of having a child with Down Syndrome increases with age of the mother and more than 80% of children with Down Syndrome are born to women under the age of 35 (Kazemi, 2019).

    For this patient it is important that she understands the concept of sex and birth control. Although she is high functioning she needs to be aware of all aspects of birth control including the side effects and risks. While she is being accompanied by her mother, she is still considered to be underage. Effective and safe contraception for young adults under 16 years of age is considered to be an overall campaign to reduce teenage pregnancy (Brierley & Larcher, 2019). The patient must be with her mother to discuss subject matters like sex and birth control. It is important as a medical professional to explain this to both the patient and her mother so they can have a better understanding.


    Brierley, J., & Larcher, V. (2014). Clinical trials of contraceptive agents in those under 16 years of age: are they necessary, ethical or legal?. Archives of disease in childhood, 99(12), 1070–1073.

    Down syndrome. (2018). Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

    Kazemi, M. (2019). Down Syndrome: Current Status, Challenges and Future Perspectives. International journal of molecular and cellular medicine, 5(3), 125–133.


    Describe briefly in one paragraph what is the pathophysiology of Down syndrome.

    The pathophysiology of down syndrome results from aneuploidy in an autosome. Aneuploid cells do not contain a multiple of 23 chromosomes and those that contain three copies of one chromosome (as in Down Syndrome) are said to be trisonic. Aneuploidy is the result of nondisjunction. Nondisjunction is an error where homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate normally during the cell cycle, specifically in meiosis or mitosis; this produces some gametes that have two copies and others that have none of the chromosome (McCance & Huether, 2019). The majority of cases involve maternal nondisjunction. Down Syndrome is the most popular aneuploidy in an autosome and occurs on the twenty-first chromosome (McCance & Huether, 2019).

    Identify the common signs and physical attributes of patients with Down Syndrome.

    Common signs and physical attributes of patients with Down Syndrome include an intelligence quotient between 25 and 70, low nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, protruding tongue, and low-set ears (McCance & Huether, 2019). Also seen in these individuals are hypotonia, short stature, congenital heart defects and reduced abilities to fight respiratory tract infections (McCance & Huether, 2019).

    Evaluate the three pathological risk factors for the inheritance of Down Syndrome.

    Approximately 97% of Down Syndrome cases are caused by nondisjunction during the formation of one of the parent’s gametes (the mother’s egg cell in 90-95% of cases) during early embryonic development; the remaining 3% are due to translocations (McCance & Huether, 2019). Of all the individuals with Down Syndrome, 1% to 3% are referred to as mosaics; these persons have a large number of normal cells and the trisomic cells are attenuated, making characteristic symptoms less severe (McCance & Huether, 2019).

    What are the ethical implications of this scenario?

    Ethical values are essential for anyone in the field of healthcare, and should be followed strictly under normal circumstances. In the scenario provided we have a high-functioning 15-year-old female who was brought to the clinic by her mother for contraception. An ethical issue that may arise in this situation involves the ethical principle of autonomy. Autonomy entails each patient having the right to make their own decisions based on their own beliefs and values (Ubel et al., 2018). Under normal circumstances that do not involve an individual with cognitive impairment, a person has the right to refuse medications, treatment, surgery, or other medical interventions regardless of benefit, and the healthcare providers must respect these decisions (Ubel et al., 2018).

    In the situation we are presented, the child is cognitively impaired, and diagnosed with Down Syndrome, albeit a ‘high-functioning’ child. In this scenario the patient themselves is unable to make informed decisions about their care due to being cognitively impaired. Clinicians frequently rely on surrogate decision-makers when the decision-making capacity of the patient is hampered, marginal, or nonexistent (Piña‐Escudero et al., 2019).

    In this scenario the child is 15 years of age and therefore the mother is her guardian at this time, regardless of the patient’s degree of cognitive impairment. The mother is able to decide on the patient’s plan of care as long as the decisions being made are not medically negligent. This is seen on a regular basis in bedside nursing when parents of a child choose to withhold certain procedures (blood draw, spinal tap, etc.) due to preference. Ethical concerns based on rationale behind the mother’s necessity to have the patient on birth control should be explored. A clear understanding of the reason’s behind the request should be had before making a decision in order to ensure it is a warranted activity. It is imperative we also keep in mind the rates of physical, mental, and sexual abuse that occur in this population. If the mother’s interests seem to be in line with the child’s best interests, the option of contraception may be explored further.


    McCance, K. L., & Huether, S.E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby Elsevier.

    Piña-Escudero, S. D., García-Avilés, R. J., Fajardo-Juárez, A. I., López, C. U., Moral-Trejo, A., Ramírez-Ambriz, P. M., Tovar-Serrano, A., & Antonio, G. (2019). Factors associated with surrogate self-efficacy in decision-making for patients with end-stage renal disease. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 25(1), 3–8. (Links to an external site.)

    Ubel, P. A., Scherr, K. A., & Fagerlin, A. (2018). Autonomy: What’s shared decision making have to do with it?. The American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB, 18(2), W11–W12.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1- Transportation in a supply chain refers to the movement of things from one location to another, starting at the beginning with resources moving to the warehouse and ending with the end-user. Finally, the order is delivered to the customer’s door. Warehouse managers should think about transportation as part of their supply chains because it is so important. in a scenario where transportation may account for up to 60% of general operating costs, a substantial portion of a company’s supply chain expenditures, this is the only way to cut total costs (Mohamed, 2019). These choices include whether to outsource logistics, which transportation chain to utilize from point of production to point of consumption, including the mode for each leg of the chain, and whether to consolidate and deconsolidate shipments. time and scheduling concerns, as well as the path across transportation networks Freight transportation and logistics are also studied on a national and worldwide scale from a macro perspective.

    When a corporation becomes too large, its unit costs may begin to rise. This is referred to as a “diseconomy of scale,” and it is a significant disadvantage that new businesses must address. Diseconomies of scale can be caused by a variety of factors, including a lack of communication (Khoury, 2019). Ineffective communication is one of the leading causes of diseconomies of scale, making it more difficult to manage a large workforce as your company grows. Control loss – As a firm grows, supervising the productivity and quality of thousands of individuals becomes more difficult, resulting in inefficient production processes. When more than one person works on the same function or task, it is called duplication of effort. Employee dissatisfaction – As businesses develop, employees are more likely to feel separated and alienated, resulting in lower production and waste. Furthermore, internal economies of scale may not be as beneficial to consumers as they appear. To begin with, economies of scale may not always imply lower prices, as dominant businesses may form a monopoly and enforce higher prices. (2019, Khoury) It’s also crucial to remember that mass production can have serious environmental consequences, ranging from pollution to e-waste.

    Khoury, P. S., & Singh, S. (2019). Building supply chain risk resilience: Role of big data analytics in supply chain disruption mitigation. Benchmarking, 26(7), 2318-2342. doi:

    Mohamed, D. S. (2019). Does supply chain analytics enhance supply chain innovation and robustness capability? Organizacija, 52(2), 95-106. doi:

    2-We may identify the following roles by systematizing all areas of logistics that need to be created for the rational management of production resources: Design and management of warehouses This function of logistics in supply chain management encompasses numerous duties at once, beginning with the design of storage facilities and finishing with the implementation of different automation solutions (for example, machines meant for carrying items within warehouses)—package construction. Packaging, tracking, and accounting are all duties that allow for complete control of products on their path to the customer/distributor (Nitya & Singh, 2019). Product transportation. This involves working with freight carriers and cars in the company’s fleet to arrange their routes, calculate fuel expenses, and so on, and taking care of customs. When an organization prepares overseas delivery of products, it is critical that the commodities completely comply with customs standards and carry all relevant documents during shipping—working with intermediaries. Intermediaries in logistics are any third-party, non-company resources that are actively involved in supply chain implementation. Finding intermediates with the best quality-to-cost ratios and creating long-term, dependable relationships with them are also on the list of duties for effective logistics management. Working with written-off and returned products There is also “reverse logistics,” which specifies the norms and routes for carrying produced/discarded products, as well as methods of disposal (Nitya & Singh, 2019).

    Transportation in a supply chain refers to the transport of items from one point to another, which begins at the beginning of the supply chain with resources making their way to the warehouse and continues to the end-user. Finally, the customer’s order is delivered at the door. Because transportation is so essential, warehouse managers should consider it inside their supply chains. Finally, this is the only method to reduce overall expenses in a scenario where transportation may account for up to 60% of general operating costs, a significant amount of a company’s supply chain expenditures (Mohamed, 2019).

    When a company grows too big, its unit expenses may start to climb. This is known as a diseconomy of scale, and it is a significant disadvantage that rising enterprises must consider. Diseconomies of scale can result from various sources, including Poor communication (Khoury, 2019). One of the biggest causes of diseconomies of scale is ineffective communication, which makes it more challenging to manage a vast staff as your firm expands. Control loss – As a company grows, it becomes more challenging to supervise the productivity and quality of thousands of people, resulting in inefficient production processes. Duplication of effort – Duplication of effort occurs when more than one person works on the same function or activity. Weak morale — As firms grow, employees are more likely to feel isolated and alienated, contributing to decreased productivity and waste. External resistance — Behavior that might have gone unpunished in a smaller organization is more likely to be perceived as a danger as a company grows, resulting in public and government resistance (Khoury, 2019).

    Furthermore, the benefits of internal economies of scale for consumers may be less significant than they look. To begin with, economies of scale may not necessarily result in reduced pricing since dominating enterprises may create a monopoly and impose higher pricing (Khoury, 2019). It is also important to realize that the environmental effects of mass production, from pollution to e-waste, may be severe.


    Nitya, P. S., & Singh, S. (2019). Building supply chain risk resilience: Role of big data analytics in supply chain disruption mitigation. Benchmarking, 26(7), 2318-2342. doi:

    Mohamed, D. S. (2019). Does supply chain analytics enhance supply chain innovation and robustness capability? Organizacija, 52(2), 95-106. doi:

    Khoury, B. J. (2019). Logistics data analytics alongside voucher programme phases. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 9(3), 332-351. doi:


    Nova Southeastern University


    The primary etiology of emphysema is long-term exposure to airborne irritants which damage the lungs and airways (Cleveland Clinic, 2021). Smoking is the number one cause of emphysema. Smoking irritates the airways and destroys lung tissue, causing inflammation, which leads to swollen airways and causes shortness of breath (Sarkar et al., 2019). In HG’s case, he has smoked cigarettes for 45 years and this is the contributing cause to his emphysema and COPD diagnoses.

    Expected findings during inspection for COPD/emphysema patients could include: accessory muscle use during respirations, purse-lip breathing, wheezing, nail clubbing, blue lips or nails, cough, exaggeration inward movement of lower ribs during inspiratory (Hoover’s sign), or barrel-shaped chest. Patients with COPD can also have peripheral edema and can indicate right-sided heart failure or can be a result of hypercapnia (Sarkar et al., 2019). During palpation, one will notice a decreased tactile fremitus, due to the hyperinflation of the lungs (Sarkar et al., 2019). While percussing a patient with emphysema, one will note hyperresonance. During auscultation, expected findings include diminished breaths sounds and wheezing.

    HG’s presentation would include subjective findings such as, smoking history, feeling of chest tightness or shortness of breath, complaints of cough or sputum (Anderson et al., 2017). Objective findings would include, wheezing, accessory muscle use, vital signs (decreased oxygen saturation, tachycardia), increased pCO2 on ABG, blue lips or fingernails, barrel-chest, peripheral edema, or congestion on an X-ray.


    Anderson, W. H., Ha, J. W., Couper, D. J., O’Neal, W. K., Barr, R. G., Bleecker, E. R., Carretta, E. E., Cooper, C. B., Doerschuk, C. M., Drummond, M. B., Han, M. L. K., Hansel, N. N., Kim, V., Kleerup, E. C., Martinez, F. J., Rennard, S. I., Tashkin, D., Woodruff, P. G., Paine, R., & Kanner, R. E. (2017). Variability in objective and subjective measures affects baseline values in studies of patients with COPD. PLOS ONE, 12(9).

    Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Emphysema: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatments. Cleveland Clinic.

    Sarkar, M., Bhardwaz, R., Madabhavi, I., & Modi, M. (2019). Physical signs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society, 36(1), 38–47.


    Nova Southeastern University


    1. A2: The court system is predicated upon the ultimate need to engender a society that is based upon the rule of law. For all intents and purposes, the intent of the system is to provide equal rights and opportunities for all those who fall within the controls and political boundaries of the United States. The courts are thus charged with executing those laws as the ultimate arbiters of the existing statutory and case laws at all levels of the system. One such contemporary social justice administration concept is the inception of Problem-Solving Courts ( Problem solving courts have continued to extend their reach into areas initially from drug use and addiction, to community courts, domestic violence, and veteran’s courts. The system however, has an equal number of proponents as it does skeptics. Research and develop a Focus Paper that addresses a Case Study on a Focused Topic Area. Select and review one type of problem-solving court weighing the pros and cons and come to a conclusion if the selected court is effective in utilizing these types of diversionary methods to accomplish social remediation and future compliance to the rule of law. The argument must be balanced and supported by credible sources, statistics, and facts. 
    2. OR A2 Option 2: Research and develop a Focus Paper that is designed as a Legal Analysis on a Focused Topic Area. Social justice administration must also consider the legal and ethical standards that criminal justice decision makers and policy makers pursue and enact. While we can argue that social justice and ethical embodiment are the foremost considerations in our system of criminal justice, these often nebulous concepts must subordinate themselves to the fact that the codified legal considerations are the primary decision makers in this specific system. And while social justice and ethics are not deciders in the legal realm, they are influential and often drivers of the ancillary and corollary decision making processes. With these considerations in mind, select one of the two following options to develop the paper that analyzes the legal aspects of a case as impacted by the ethical and social justice implications: Topic 1: Being unethical is not always illegal and even the combination of both may not ultimately rise to the level of the definition of a social injustice – Develop an analysis and recommendations for bridging the gap between these concepts in the criminal justice system or Topic 2: Select a legal case to review that involves all three concepts: Unethical behavior, illegal conduct, and a social injustice to critically review and analyze a specific legal case of the student’s choosing (e.g. Bernard Madoff Fraud and Embezzlement Scandal). The student may use the mainstream media and other legal websites ( to conduct their research. 


    Nova Southeastern University

    1-Hello Class,

    There are many different financial means that companies can utilize in order to reduce financial waste and remain lean. One of these means would be interest rate swaps. The principle is one based on comparative advantage, in order for active liability management and hedging against interest rates. Bicksler, J., & Chen, A. H. (2012, April 30) This agreement between two companies allows them to manage their risk and operate on an interest rate that is ideal for their operations. This could be simply variable payments into fixed payments. All swaps are based on one central principle: one participant exchanging an advantage in one credit market advantage available to another participant in a different credit market Balsam, S., & Kim, S. (2001, October 30). One of the companies can be experiencing decreased cash flow and be entering the agreement in order to aid in this situation.

    Two companies enter an interest rate swap agreement with a certain value in mind, one company is under the assumption that interests will likely rise in the short run and looks to profit. While the second company in play is receiving a floating interest rate return and does not share the same analysis when it comes to the outlook of interest rates in the short run. The two companies enter an agreement to profit based off of movement of the market with interest rates.

    A notable risk of interest rate swaps would be counterparty risks, the two parties typically involved are larger companies or institutions the risk is relatively low. The companies for the most part are able to meet their obligations under their agreement. The legal proceedings if one institution is unable to keep their end of the agreement could and would be a difficult legal proceeding for the companies to navigate.


    Bicksler, J., & Chen, A. H. (2012, April 30). An economic analysis of Interest Rate Swaps. Wiley Online Library. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from

    Balsam, S., & Kim, S. (2001, October 30). Effects of interest rate swaps. Journal of Economics and Business. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from

    2- “Interest rate swap is an agreement that one party is to swap its fixed interest rate payment for a floating interest rate payment of another party(Eiteman, pg. 229, 2021).” An interest rate swap is normally offered when a country is trying to reduce or maintain a lower interest rate that may have not been possible if they had not done the swap. Some may even swap to increase exposure to fluctuations in interest rates. When a person does an interest rate swap, they are exchanging future payments for another base on the principal amount or what they are looking for. So, think of it this way. You are trading one cash flow for another cash flow. This could be a good thing in the beginning but may turn into a bad one down the line. These swaps are considered over the counter(OTC) due to their contracts between the two-party.

    There are different ways you could do the interest rate swap. For example, you can have a fixed to floating sway. If a company has an interest rate that catches the eye of the public, it could swap. If the manager believes they could get a better cash flow from a floating rate, then the business would want to do a swap. You could also have a floating to fixed swap or a float-to-float swap. It all comes down to the need of both parties and their goals. It is important to remember that even though this swap is a great tool it can also be bad in the long run.

    “Provus said that basis risk on a floating-to-fixed rate swap can have potential exposure as the issuer may have a difference between the floating rate on the variable rate demand obligation bonds and the floating rate would receive it from the swap counterparty (Provus,2021).” This could happen if the floating rate bond has a Bond Market Association (BMA) that is different from the other party who may have a 60 percent or more of London Interbank Offering Rate LIBOR. You also have to remember just because you are getting rid of what may be a high rate doesn’t mean the cash flow or the interest you are exchanging is going to be better.


    Chen, J. (2021, September 15). What is an interest rate swap? Investopedia. Retrieved September 16, 2021, from

    Eiteman, D. K., Stonehill, A. I., & Moffett, M. H. (2021). Multinational Business Finance. Pearson Education Limited.

    Provus, S. (n.d.). Basis Risk With Interest Rate Swaps. CDFA. Retrieved September 16, 2021, from

    3-An interest rate swap or just a rate swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange a series of interest payments without exchanging the underlying debt. In a typical fixed/floating rate swap, the first party promise to pay to the second at designated intervals a stipulated amount of interest calculated at a fixed rate on the theoretical principal and the second party promises to pay to the first at the same intervals a variable amount of interest on the supposed principle calculated according to a floating-rate index (Bicksler et al., 2006). In addition, the first party in a fixed/floating rate swap that pays the fixed amount of interest is called the fixed rate payer, and the second party that pays the floating amount of interest is called the floating-rate payer (Bicksler et al., 2006).

    Moreover, interest rate swap is optional to market transactions by two parties and both parties obtain economic benefits which are result of the principle of comparative advantage.

    The risk associate with interest rate swaps are mainly a practice of risk management and risk mitigation (Mayhew, 2003).

    • Risk management: there are several risk factors that essential to all derivative trades and some that are unique to certain trades. However general risks include but not limited to (1) termination risk: risk that the counterparty will terminate the swap in an adverse market; (2) fair value risk: risk that the market value of the trade becomes negative; (3) credit risk: risk that the counterparty will drop below acceptable rating levels, and (4) basis risk: risk that the basis for the variable payment received will not match the variable payment on the bonds (Mayhew, 2003).
    • Risk mitigation: when an issuer does not have to give the counterparty the right to swap arrangement. In addition, an issuer can always terminate a swap (market values not resisting) and employ insurance to guarantee the performance of both the issuer and the counterparty (Mayhew, 2003).


    Bicksler, J., & Chen, A, H. (2006). An economic analysis of interest rate swaps. The Journal of Finance. 19(3). 645-655. (PDF) An Economic Analysis of Interest Rate Swaps (

    Mayhew, B. (2003). Risk and rewards of interest rate swaps: one issuer ‘perspective. California Debt and Investment Advisory Commission. 22(10). 1-3. Risks & Rewards of Interest Rate Swaps.p65 (


    Nova Southeastern University

    1- Hi,

    So how do American companies need to address bribery? American companies are subject to U.S. laws in addition to the host country.

    2-Organizations undertake a myriad of complex tasks when pursuing international opportunities. Of the tasks important to marketing managers, maintaining effective international communication is critically important (Starkey, 2015). This element among others plays a vital role in meeting marketing and organizational objectives. With steadily increasing international business, negotiation activity has consequently increased. Negotiation refers to the agreed-upon trade-offs agreed upon by international entities (Starkey, 2015). Hence the importance of maximized communication efficiency as international barriers naturally impact correspondence as it is (Starkey, 2015). There are a variety of factors that impact international communication such as time differences, language barriers, cultural barriers, international trade policies, and legal aspects.

    Communication methods of international negotiation include face-to-face interaction, phone calls, emails, faxes, written correspondence, video conferencing (Zoom, Skype, etc.), and virtual negotiation (Maude, 2014). Marketing managers are responsible for utilizing multiple tools to efficiently and effectively handle international negotiations. Maude (2014) Acknowledges face-to-face negotiation as the most effective method as each party can notate nonverbal signals that would otherwise be camouflaged. Problems, though, are that this method is both costly and time-consuming. Videoconferencing serves as an effective, cost-efficient substitute for face-to-face negotiation in many cases (Maude, 2014). Problems with phone calls are that they may result in misinterpretations. Emailing is not as secure and could be susceptible to hacking, or emails from fraudulent sources. Written correspondence is at the mercy of postal operation, and can be a lengthy process.

    In addition to such negotiation barriers, parties must also consider possible government involvement. To regulate international business, governments may play a pivotal role in regulating international negotiations to protect domestic sovereignty, and national welfare (Maude, 2014). For this reason, firms may be required to abide by additional clauses such as imposed tariffs or quotas (Maude, 2014). Furthermore, macro-level negotiations increase the complexity of traditional trade barriers. For example, if an international trade negotiation involves multiple players, differentiating laws further complicate the process. This may serve as a major problem as this often results in a prolonged negotiation process. All organizations and subsequent governing laws must be in accordance on behalf of all parties.

    Maude, B. (2014). International business negotiation: principles and practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.

    Starkey, B., Boyer, M. A., & Wilkenfeld, J. (2015). International negotiation in a complex world. Rowman & Littlefield.


    The five methods for addressing intercultural challenges mentioned below will assist you in getting the best out of your cross-cultural business negotiations.

    Research the other party’s culture

    Standard negotiating texts warn us to learn about our host or counterpart’s history, including its customs, rituals, taboos, and other aspects (Gut, Wilczewski & Gorbaniuk, 2017). Do company negotiators give each other a handshake, an embrace, or a bow when they meet? Should you expect many small talks to create confidence, or should you wish to get straight to work? These tips will help you prevent potentially humiliating or disrespectful gaffes and break down cultural walls and increase the effectiveness of your business negotiations.

    Consider the individual.

    In his book Negotiating Life: Secrets for Everyday Diplomacy and Deal Making, Tufts University professor Jeswald W. Salacuse writes, “If rule number one in an international negotiation is to recognize the other side’s culture, rule number two is to prevent overreliance on that information” (Zhu, 2020). They would not see you as a walking, talking racial stereotype, just as you will not want them to see you as such. Everyone in your business negotiations would wish to be a multifaceted being.

    However, negotiators often overestimate the importance of the other party’s culture, drawing on assumptions therefore. According to University of Waterloo professor Wendi L. Adair and her students, Japanese and American negotiators changed their negotiation style too much against the other side’s culture in one report (Zhu, 2020). As a result, these negotiators formed traditional perceptions of one another, resulting in cultural clashes and misunderstandings.

    Of course, our negotiation behavior is influenced by factors other than histories, such as attitude, preparation, and experience. Put your cultural background to the side and focus on getting to know the other group as a person. This experience can help gain a deeper understanding of your counterpart’s actions at crucial points in your business negotiations, but it should not be the guiding force.

    Build bridges across cultures.

    Salacuse advises looking for ways to cross the two (or more) cultures involved in your business negotiations rather than dwelling on addressing intercultural obstacles (Gut, Wilczewski & Gorbaniuk, 2017). Building bridges can include pointing out cultural parallels, such as common ancestry or customs. It may also involve identifying similar experiences, interests, or goals that transcend cultures.

    Consider the broader context.

    Professor Max H. Bazerman of Harvard Business School was fascinated by the willingness of some negotiators in attendance to integrate a wide range of questions into their negotiating planning while co-teaching a course on organizational diplomacy to executives (Zhu, 2020). When assessing a negotiation in a foreign world, diplomats considered topics such as shifting regional politics and rules, societal priorities, and market standards, going way beyond the apparent cultural boundaries or gaps in the space.

    The diplomatic difficulties of negotiating with someone from a foreign culture can cause one to lose sight of the bigger picture. We will integrate important questions and maximize our chances of achieving a fruitful, long-term compromise by looking at the deal from a broader lens.

    Take steps to reduce stress.

    Professor Michael W. Morris of Columbia University discovered in his study on cross-cultural agreements that when faced with extreme demands on their time, negotiators are more inclined to stick to their culture’s stereotypes. Morris discovered, for example, that under time pressure, American participants were more likely than Hong Kong participants to blame the person rather than the scenario for a problem—an American negotiating bias that can lead to tension and impasse (Yasin & Yasin, 2013).

    According to Morris, emotional tension, responsibility to others, and deadlines will lead one to rely on stereotypical reasoning rather than carefully assessing the agreement. So, in your cross-cultural business negotiations, do whatever you can to relieve tension (Yasin & Yasin, 2013). That may include taking regular breaks, making sure you have ample time to compromise, or enlisting the assistance of a mutually responsible third party to settle any disagreements or disputes that occur during your discussions. As a result, the stresses associated with cultural barriers will be reduced, and you will continue to deal with one another as negotiators rather than stereotypes.


    Gut, A., Wilczewski, M. & Gorbaniuk, O. (2017). Cultural Differences, Stereotypes and Communication Needs in Intercultural Communication in a Global Multicultural Environment: The Employees’ Perspective. Retrieved from https://0624jbqex-mp02-y-https-search-proquest-com…

    Yasin, A. & Yasin, A. (2013). How to Overcome Communication Barriers in Global Software Development? Retrieved from https://0624jbqex-mp02-y-https-search-proquest-com…

    Zhu, S. (2020). A Study on Affective Barriers in Intercultural Communication and Related Strategies. Retrieved from https://0624jbqex-mp02-y-https-search-proquest-com.prx-


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    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

    Please summarize ARDS as a disease process, and discuss how the treatment plan for these patients is different from other patients with acute respiratory failure. Please discuss the specific medical and ventilator management plans for patients for ARDS, and discuss the findings from the article this week. Be sure to include at least one of the more controversial treatment options or mechanical ventilation modes for patients diagnosed with ARDS.

    Discussion Board Posting: Presentation Responses
    Discussion Board Posting: Presentation Responses
    Criteria Ratings Pts

    Initial Post

    1 pts

    1 pts

    The initial posting is substantive demonstrating critical thinking and thoughts delving deeper into the discussion topic and course content and includes a minimum of two professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

    0.5 pts

    0.5 pts

    The initial posting is somewhat substantive and/or includes only one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal and/or completed by Thursday at 11:59 PM/EST.

    0.25 pts

    0.25 pts

    The initial posting is not substantive or submitted after Thursday at 11:59 PM/EST. The initial post does not include a reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal. Posted on same day as a response posting.

    / 1 pts

    Response 1

    0.5 pts

    0.5 pts

    The response is a substantive interaction that builds on the ideas of others, delving deeper into the discussion question and course content in response to a colleague. The response includes one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

    0.3 pts

    0.3 pts

    The response is somewhat substantive and includes one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

    0 pts

    0 pts

    The response does not have a reference from professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal and/or did not post and/or posted on same day as initial posting and/or response posting.

    / 0.5 pts

    Response 2

    0.5 pts

    0.5 pts

    The response is a substantive interaction that builds on the ideas of others, delving deeper into the discussion question and course content in response to a colleague. The response includes one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

    0.3 pts

    0.3 pts

    The response is somewhat substantive and includes one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

    0 pts

    0 pts

    The response does not have a reference from professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal and/or did not post and/or posted on same day as initial posting and/or response posting.

    / 0.5 pts

    Response 3

    0.5 pts

    0.5 pts

    The response is a substantive interaction that builds on the ideas of others, delving deeper into the discussion question and course content in response to a colleague. The response includes one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

    0.3 pts

    0.3 pts

    The response is somewhat substantive and includes one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

    0 pts

    0 pts

    The response does not have a reference from professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal and/or did not post and/or posted on same day as initial posting and/or response posting.

    / 0.5 pts


    0.5 pts

    0.5 pts

    Posting and responses are clear, concise, and in proper APA format for citations and references. No grammatical errors are noted. The entry adds worth to the dialogue and the comments build on the previous statements of others.

    0.3 pts

    0.3 pts

    Posting and responses are somewhat clear. Proper APA format for citation and reference noted in some areas but some APA infractions are apparent. Minor grammatical errors are noted. The entry adds to the dialogue, but some repetition and/or unclear thought is noted.

    0 pts

    0 pts

    Posting and responses are unclear. APA format not followed. Grammatical errors are noted. The entry does not build on previous dialogue.

    / 0.5 pts

    Total Points: 0


    Nova Southeastern University

    I have to Reply


    Toolkit link: (Links to an external site.)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides many useful toolkits regarding COVID-19. An advanced practice nurse can utilize the toolkit for people with disabilities which is a population that often face healthcare inequities. The toolkit provides resources for people with disabilities regarding COVID-19 related issues. Wickenden et al. (2020) discusses the difficulties people with disabilities face regarding access to healthcare and identified transportation as a barrier. Physical access to services is hard if you cannot drive or get yourself to places independently. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021) provides information on vaccinating homebound people. Nurses can use this resource to develop plans so their homebound disabled patients can receive the COVID-19 vaccine. It also reminds healthcare providers of the storage and handling requirements the COVID-19 vaccines has so they are successful in delivering it to their patients who are homebound. Sabatello et al. (2020) discusses the different dilemmas that emerge for people with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although many people with disabilities are not at an actual higher risk for contracting COVID-19 many people with disabilities have difficulty protecting themselves from COVID-19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021) toolkit provides healthcare providers with information and materials that they can pass on to their patients with disabilities to help make sure they stay safe and take proper precautions against COVID-19.


    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, May 14). Toolkit for People with Disabilities. (Links to an external site.)

    Sabatello, M., Burke, T. B., McDonald, K. E., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2020). Disability, Ethics, and Health Care in the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Public Health, 110(10), 1523–1527. https://doi-org./10.2105/AJPH.2020.305837 (Links to an external site.)

    Wickenden, M., Kuper, H., & Hashemi, G. (2020). Barriers to accessing primary healthcare for adults with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries—Implications for OT. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(1), 1. https://doi-org./10.5014/ajot.2020.74S1-PO6718


    Week 5: Online Class Activity

    Healthy People 2030 Diabetes Toolkit

    Millions of Americans have been diagnosed with diabetes with high prevalence in the 18 delta counties. Identifying vulnerable groups and seeking to establish the key reasons such populations face health inequalities as well as examining outcomes is crucial in attaining health equity (Urban et al., 2021). The Healthy People 2030 diabetes toolkit contains evidence-based procedures on lifestyle changes such as exercises, avoidance of smoking, and diets to minimize the onset of Type 2 diabetes (Healthy people, 2020). Advanced practice nurses can utilize the process, structure, and outcome framework of healthy people 2030 to recognize outcomes and analyze the structure and processes in place in attaining results. The Rural Delta community is most interested in what will solve their healthcare disparity and inequalities. It may include increasing their access to affordable and healthy food choices as well as improving the presence of health screenings within the community. The Healthy People 2030 diabetes framework also allows an APN to select the appropriate diabetes objective to administer for a particularly vulnerable population (Healthy people, 2020). Besides, it provides important insights on why particular populations are vulnerable which is significant in reducing the burden diabetes imposes on patients from the delta community and the healthcare structure. Additionally, the Healthy People 2030 diabetes tool kit also offers a variety of preventative care techniques to recognize, prevent, educate and manage diseases in vulnerable populations (Healthy people, 2020). Individuals from minority groups have a high likelihood to be inflicted by type 2 diabetes. The healthy people 2030 Diabetes toolkit also offers important guidelines which an advanced nurse may utilize to reduce incidence levels of type 2 diabetes among the rural delta populations.


    Healthy people. (2020, January 2). Healthy people 2030. Home of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion – Retrieved May 21, 2021, from

    Urban, K., Malaty, S., Turner, A., & Radhakrishnan, P. (2021). Identifying state-wide health disparities in diabetes mellitus management in Arizona: Review of healthy people 2020 performance. Cureus.


    Hello Class,
    Diabetes Type 2 has a very high rate of morbidity, mortality, and debility in the United States. Ethnic and racial minority women have been found to be disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (Brown et al., 2016). Minority populations tend to be more overweight, lack physical activity and eat more processed food than other populations (Brown et al., 2016). These factors greatly increase the risk of the development of diabetes type 2. Advance practice nurses can partner with their patients and use the CDC’s toolkit on diabetes self-management to make sure patients have the resources they need to manage their disease. This toolkit includes resources for providers and patients. For example, the toolkit includes multiple handouts, videos, and power points for providers to use to educate their patients (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). The toolkit gives suggestions on how these resources can be used during individual appointments and during larger educational sessions. The advanced practice nurse can adapt these strategies to one-on-one appointments as well as offer group sessions like lunch and learns to reach a larger audience. For patients, the toolkit not only offers these same resources but also includes referral services where patients can be linked to a nutritionist or diabetic educator (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). The advanced practice nurse is vital in introducing patients to resources such as this one. Many practitioners often don’t have time to provide extensive amount of information on chronic conditions, but they can however walk patients through how to access resources during in patient appointments (Brown et al., 2016). Between incorporating some of this education into practice and teaching patients how to utilize this information it could greatly decrease some of the health disparities that exist regarding type 2 diabetes.
    Brown, S. D., Ehrlich, S. F., Kubo, A., Tsai, A.-L., Hedderson, M. M., Quesenberry, C. P., & Ferrara, A. (2016). Lifestyle behaviors and ethnic identity among diverse women at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Social Science & Medicine, 160, 87-93.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, March 6). Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) toolkit.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1-Omar, thanks for your contribution to this week’s discussion; your assessments are correct. Salvatore (2012) believes that capital flow is one of the primary motivations for portfolio investment and a well-diversified portfolio, a well-known principle of risk diversification. This combination of assets will outperform a single asset if the returns do not move firmly together over time.

    Salvatore (2012) postulates that foreign assets are a good candidate for risk diversification due to the current economic climate because they do not move as carefully with domestic assets. One of the reasons is that domestic assets are subject to more regulations than foreign assets are. In addition to capital movements, Salvatore (2012) argues that financial capital flow can take advantage of different interest rates. For example, German bonds may offer higher interest rates for lenders in the US than lenders in Germany for US bonds, while Japanese bonds may offer lower rates for US borrowers for Japanese bonds. Please note that the exchange rate changes affect the returns that lenders expect to receive, and borrowers expect to pay on securities denominated in foreign currency. Based on your assessment of this week’s discussion, the traditional strong link between economic growth and FDI means that the world economic meltdown of 2007 to 2009 decreased the appetite for new investments abroad?


    Salvatore, D. (2012). Introduction to International Economics. 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    2-Hi Professor and classmates,

    Global corporations are an imperative vehicle for the international flows of capital, labor, and technology. Having said that, we have two main types of foreign investments: portfolio investments and direct investments. Portfolio investments are purely financial assets that are denominated in a national currency; for example, bonds are financial instruments where an investor lends capital to get fixed payouts or a return at regular intervals and then receives the face value of the bond at a prespecified date. Further, stocks are financial instruments where an investor purchases equity, or a claim on the net worth of the firm. Portfolio or financial investments take place primarily through financial institutions such as banks and investment funds. On the other hand, Direct investments are real investments in factories, capital goods, land, and inventories where both capital and management are involved, and the investor retains control over use of the invested capital. Direct investment usually takes the form of a firm starting a subsidiary or taking control of another firm (Salvatore, 2013). For example, Honda Motors company is a Japanese automobile maker with headquarters in Japan. They decided to open a branch in North America, for instance, in the US. Now, they bought a piece of land in the US to build a manufacturing plant of Honda Civics and CR-Vs models. Also, if anyone would like to have ownership of this public traded company; he/she will have to go to a financial institution and buy stocks of such company. In my opinion, foreign direct investment helps a country economy. They create jobs, bring newer technologies, they attract talented individuals and they have career growth opportunities to many young professionals.


    Salvatore, D. (2013). In International economics (pp. 367–370)., John Wiley & Sons

    3-Hello class!

    Foreign investment, basically, is putting resources into a nation other than your home one. It includes capital spilling out of one nation to another and outsiders having a possession intrigue or a state in the business. Unfamiliar speculation is for the most part observed as an impetus for monetary development and can be embraced by organizations, partnerships, and people. Speculators intrigued by unfamiliar venture for the most part take one of two ways: unfamiliar portfolio speculation or unfamiliar direct investment (Meng & Wincoop, 2020). Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) alludes to the acquisition of protections and other money related resources by financial specialists from another nation. Foreign direct investment (FDI) alludes to speculations made by an individual or firm in one nation in a business situated in another nation. Speculators can make unfamiliar direct interests in various manners. Some basic ones incorporate building up an auxiliary in another nation, gaining or converging with a current unfamiliar organization, or beginning a joint endeavor association with an unfamiliar organization.

    Foreign portfolio investment alludes to putting resources into the money related resources of a far off nation, for example, stocks or securities accessible on a trade (Hlaing & Kakinaka,, 2019). This kind of speculation is now and again saw less well than direct venture since portfolio speculations can be auctions off rapidly and are on occasion observed as transient endeavors to bring in cash, as opposed to a drawn out interest in the economy. Portfolio speculations regularly make some shorter memories outline for venture return than direct speculations. Similarly as with any value venture, unfamiliar portfolio speculators normally hope to rapidly understand a benefit on their ventures.

    Foreign direct investment includes setting up an immediate business enthusiasm for an outside nation, for example, purchasing or setting up an assembling business, building distribution centers, or purchasing structures. Unfamiliar direct venture will in general include building up all the more a significant, long haul enthusiasm for the economy of an outside nation. (Hlaing & Kakinaka,, 2019). Because of the fundamentally more elevated level of speculation required, unfamiliar direct speculation is typically embraced by worldwide organizations, enormous establishments, or investment firms. Unfamiliar direct speculation will in general be seen all the more well since they are viewed as long haul ventures, just as interests in the prosperity of the nation itself.


    Hlaing, S. W., & Kakinaka, M. (2019). Global uncertainty and capital flows: any difference between foreign direct investment and portfolio investment? Applied Economics Letters, 26(3), 202–209.

    Meng, G., & van Wincoop, E. (2020). A Decomposition of International Capital Flows. IMF Economic Review, 68(2), 362–389.


    Nova Southeastern University

    William Shakespeare
    Act 1, Scene 1 through Act 1, Scene 3

    Choose one of the following prompts and respond to it. Note that you can use the prompts as you see fit: do not feel as if you need to address every point a prompt brings up. Also, if you have a particular question or idea that is not covered by a prompt and about which you want to post, go ahead. In most cases, though, the prompts will focus your thoughts and help you do a better job on this assignment. Regardless, always change your post’s subject-line so that it reflects your focus.

    Hamlet does not appear in this play until Scene 2. Normally, especially in plays written in Shakespeare’s era, tragedies begin with the main character. Why do you think Shakespeare decided to delay Hamlet’s entrance and begin the play with Horatio, the guards, and the ghost?

    Claudius begins Act 1, Scene 2 with a speech to the royal court at Elsinore. His brother King Hamlet has died, and he has married his brother’s widow and claimed the throne, even though conventionally the line of succession passes to a king’s son, not brother (or even wife). Denmark had an elected monarchy, which means that succession was not automatic: the nobles had to approve the new king. What explanation for his actions does he provide? How persuasive do you find it? Can you see anything wrong with it?

    In the Elizabethan understanding of psychology, Hamlet is what was called melancholy — which means largely what it means now, but was associated specifically with an intellectual (as opposed to emotional) character. Find evidence for this diagnosis of his problem. Do you think he is mentally ill? Would we call him depressed? (Then again, at times he seems almost manic.) Are his feelings under the circumstances justified?

    Why does Laertes warn Ophelia about Hamlet? Why does Polonius order her to avoid him in the future? What do they have against him? Do they have the same reasons for their warnings?


    Nova Southeastern University



    The kidney secretes prostaglandins that stimulate renin production. The enzyme plays a central rate-limiting role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone hormonal mechanism that helps control blood pressure (Acharya & Olivero, 2018). The kidney also responds to vitamin D that supports insulin secretion and blood pressure regulation.

    Renal calculi cause severe pain, hematuria, vomiting, and septicemia. It can also trigger renal scarring and urinary tract obstruction (UTO) that initiate permanent renal failure (Leslie et al., 2020). Hence, renal calculi are a precursor of UTO.
    Several risk factors expose individuals to renal diseases: hypertension, diabetes, obesity, old age, acute kidney injury, smoking, and heart diseases. Genomic factors also contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD), Fabry diseases, and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) (Cañadas-Garre et al., 2019). Hereditary diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, may trigger kidney diseases.
    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) denote bladder or kidney inflammations caused by bacteria. They are curable and disappear 48 hours after commencing treatment. Conversely, pyelonephritis occurs as a compilation of ascending UTI that spreads from the bladder to the kidney (Belyayeva & Jeong, 2021). Nausea, flank pain, fever, and vomiting symptomize it. Medication therapies can treat pyelonephritis. Glomerulonephritis entails glomeruli inflammation, characterized by “immune-mediated damage to the basement membrane, mesangium, or the capillary endothelium, leading to hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia” (Kazi et al., 2021). Individuals can reverse it using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), alpha-adrenergic agonists, and diuretics (Kazi et al., 2021). Overall, UTIs, pyelonephritis, and glomerulonephritis differ in prognosis, pathophysiology, and clinical symptoms.
    A mismatch between nutrient and oxygen delivery to the nephrons and high energy demands due to cellular stress triggers acute kidney failure (AKF). Its primary causes include hypotension, severe organ failure, and acute tubule necrosis (Bindroo & Rodriguez, 2021). AKF reduces the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine, excrete wastes, maintain fluid balance, and conserve electrolytes (Gaut & Liapis, 2021). Physicians use fluid replacement, diuretic medications, and dialysis to treat AKF.

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) occurs due to permanent impairment of the kidney function caused by diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, PKD, prolonged UTO, and nephrolithiasis (Bindroo & Rodriguez, 2021). Hypertension, water-electrolyte imbalance, malaise, pulmonary edema, and appetite loss characterize it (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2019). Peritoneal dialysis, hemofiltration, low protein diet, kidney transplantation, calcium reducers, and diuretics can help assuage CRF’s symptoms.


    Acharya, V., & Olivero, J. (2018). The kidney as an endocrine organ. Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal, 14(4), 305-307. (Links to an external site.).14797/mdcj-14-4-305

    Belyayeva, M., & Jeong, J. M. (2021, July 10). Acute pyelonephritis. StatPearls [Internet]. (Links to an external site.)K519537/

    Bindroo, S., & Rodriguez, B. Q. (2021, July 4). Renal failure. StatPearls. https://www.statpearl (Links to an external site.)

    Cañadas-Garre, M., Anderson, K., Cappa, R., Skelly, R., Smyth, L. J., McKnight, A. J., & Maxwell, A. P. (2019). Genetic susceptibility to chronic kidney disease – Some more pieces for the heritability puzzle. Frontiers in Genetics, 10, 453. (Links to an external site.)9.00453

    Gaut, J. P., & Liapis, H. (2021). Acute kidney injury pathology and pathophysiology: A retrospective review. Clinical Kidney Journal, 14(2), 526-536.

    Kazi, A. (2021, February 11). Glomerulonephritis. StatPearls.… (Links to an external site.)

    Leslie, S.W., Sajjad, H., & Murphy, P.B. (2021, July 1). Renal calculi. StatPearls [Internet]. (Links to an external site.)

    Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019, August 15). Chronic kidney disease. Mayo Clinic.…


    As an endocrine gland, the kidney produces the hormone renin. According to Chalmers (2019), this hormone regulates blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin pathway. The blood pressure entering the glomerulus determines the quantity of renin kidneys produce. Urinary tract obstruction that results from renal calculi can cause complications such as bacterial infections within the renal pelvis. Urinary stasis resulting from the obstruction can create ideal conditions for bacteria growth. Old age, Diabetes Mellitus, and high blood pressure can increase an individual’s predisposition to renal diseases. Additionally, factors such as cultural or ethnic backgrounds and socioeconomic status can determine the speed at which the disease progresses (Thomas, 2019). Moreover, researchers have established that a family history of kidney disease increases the chances of the disease, thus implying the possibility of inheritance.

    Uropathogens such as Escherichia coli are responsible for most urinary tract infections (UTIs). These bacteria attach themselves to the cell lining of the urinary tract and cause tissue damage as they spread. UTIs can present in various ways, including fever, pain during urination, and sometimes through the presence of blood in the urine, which may be visible or non-visible. Typically, UTIs are not serious and disappear quickly with treatment. However, in some cases, UTIs can lead to pyelonephritis. This infection can lead to extensive destruction of nephrons, and in severe cases, can cause established renal failure (Chalmers, 2019). Ordinarily, pyelonephritis presents as fever and loin pain. While the unilateral chronic infection is primarily benign, the bilateral chronic infection might result in the accelerated arrival of chronic renal disease.

    Interactions between antigens and antibodies within the glomeruli can damage the functionality of the glomerular capillary network, causing glomerulonephritis (Chalmers, 2019). It can impact the kidney’s blood pressure regulation function resulting in hypertension or even impair the kidney’s excretory functions. This condition may present as established renal disease or increased levels of protein in the urine. Depending on the type of glomerulonephritis, the prognosis can range from no complications to established renal failure in severe cases.

    Acute kidney failure is the result of an abrupt loss of renal function, affecting the kidneys excretory role (Dainton, 2019). Acute renal failure might result from hypotension, urinary tract obstructions, or physical damage to the kidneys. Typically, acute renal failure manifests as anemia, reduced frequency of urination, clotting, or unexplained weight loss (Mahon et al., 2013). Renal specialists may use stenting to relieve urological obstructions, recommend suitable dialysis or renal replacement therapy.

    Diabetes Mellitus and high blood pressure are responsible for chronic renal failure (Thomas, 2019). The illness ordinarily presents as edema, lethargy, or lower back pain. Although some categories of chronic renal failure only necessitate lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy diet, and management of hypertension and diabetes where necessary, severe categories of the ailment require suitable renal replacement therapy.


    Chalmers, C. (2019). Applied anatomy and physiology and the renal disease process. In N. Thomas (Ed.), Renal nursing: Care and management of people with kidney disease (5th ed., pp. 21-58). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    Dainton, M. (2019). Acute Kidney Injury. In N. Thomas (Ed.), Renal nursing: Care and management of people with kidney disease (5th ed., pp. 105-126). John Wiley & Sons.

    Mahon, A., Jenkins, K., & Burnapp, L. (Eds.). (2013). Oxford Handbook of Renal Nursing. Oxford University Press.

    Thomas, N. (2019). Chronic kidney disease. In N. Thomas (Ed.), Renal nursing: Care and management of people with kidney disease (5th ed., pp. 127-146). John Wiley & Sons.


    Nova Southeastern University

    • How did Livy and Ovid’s views about marriage and sex in Roman society differ?
    • In what ways did they seem to share certain assumptions about Roman cultural institutions?

    When you have completed your response, please respond to another classmate’s post. You can engage in friendly debate or add additional analysis and points to your classmate’s post.


    It seems that in both pieces, loyalty does mean a lot to the Roman society in the case that they slay the perpetrator in Livy’s piece and this man in Ovid’s piece touches on a creepy story line, but nonetheless he does not pursue even though he knows she is unattainable and the only way would be by force to lay with her. I feel that Livy’s piece it shows that sex is a man’s hastiness to pursue and it does not matter whether or not a woman wants to lay with you, marriage does not matter and sex will happen one way or another; however, it shows that no one agrees with that sentiment. In Ovid’s we can see that’s how probably very many feel with an unattainable woman, but there are boundaries and imagination is as far as that man can go which shows that there is a barrier of reluctance even if a sex urge is strong. The largest assumption that I can say is similar in these pieces about the Roman society is that men crave the urge to have sex and treat women terribly even if it is just about the imagination, it was like the man was giving the woman orders on what she can/cannot do with her husband. In the case of Livy’s piece, that is just the worst type of thing imaginable to happen to a woman and the fact that he actually traveled ways away just to do that shows how insane it is.


    Livy and Ovid’s perspectives on marriage and sex in Roman culture differed a lot where Ovid was more concerned with love and he disregarded marriage, but Livy was more concerned with the dignity and holy aspects of marriage. Ovid was head over heels in love with a woman who was married to another guy, but he didn’t mind since he adored her. In the poem, he tells his secret lover how they may spend time together when her spouse is at a dinner table. Ovid advises her to make her husband as drunk as possible so that he can join her. He is also jealous inside by the prospect of her kissing her spouse. Ovid saw her marriage as nothing more than a contract with another guy. He would go to any extent to be with her, and the poem is filled with passionate feelings. Ovid Livy describes how Lucretia was raped by Sextus in The Rape of Lucretia. He knows she kills herself because she feels her body has been ruined and she is no longer pure for her husband. Adultery is a severe crime, according to both Livy and Ovid that’s how they share the same roman cultural thinking, when Sextus threatens Lucretia in Livy’s “The Rape of Lucretia,” claiming that if he had to kill her, he told her that he would make it appear like she committed adultery and was executed as a result of it. This was enough to keep Lucretia silent, demonstrating the gravity of the offense. In Ovid’s poetry, adultery is equally severe because he knows he won’t be able to have any actual contact with his hidden lover because she is married.


    Nova Southeastern University

    1- Exchange rates are described as the price of one country’s currency in relation to another. Exchange rates may be expressed as the average rate for a period of time or as the rate at the end the period (Peter, 2011). Exchange rates are classified by the International Monetary Fund in three wide characteristics indicating the role of the authorities in the determination of the exchange rates and the increase of exchange rates in a country (Peter, 2011):

    • The market rate that is utilized to describe exchange rates determined largely by market forces
    • The official rate that is used to describe the exchange rate determined by authorities
    • The arrangement falling between the two, in which the rate keeps a stable value against another country or a composite of currencies.

    Interest rates, on the other hands, is the dollars paid by a borrower to a lender for use of funds over a specific period of time. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the principal borrowed per time period (Glantz et al., 2014). In addition, the total interest rate element is related to as the nominal interest rate that consists of two parts: real that represents the actual profit or gain received by the lender and inflation that represents the overall increase in economic cost (Glantz et al., 2014).

    Furthermore, the relationship between nominal interest rate differentials and exchange rate movements is compound. The associated cash flows do not depend on the nominal interest rate differential , but on the adjusted amount for the expected rate of depreciation or appreciation of the foreign exchange value (Batten et al., 2012). In addition, the developing capital flow and the future change in the exchange rate will arise only if the higher nominal interest rate in one country is not redeemed by an expectation of an equal-sized depreciation of that country’s currency (Batten et al., 2012). As a result, the expectation of future appreciation or depreciation of a currency is correlated to the expectation of future inflation in one country in regard to another country. (Batten et al., 2012).


    Batten, D, S., & Thornton, D, L. The discount rate, interest rates and foreign exchange rates: an analysis with daily data. Journal of International Money and Finance. 279-292. The Discount Rate, Interest Rates and Foreign Exchange Rates: An Analysis with Daily Data (

    Cornelius, P. (2011). Exchange rate. International Investments in Private Equity. 203-225.

    Glantz, M., & Kissell, R. (2014). Foreign exchange market and interest rates. Multi-Asset Risk Modeling: Techniques for a Global Economy in a Electronic and Algorithmic Trading Era. Academic Press.

    2- Exchange rates have been around for some time. Exchange rates have helped U.S. businesses and international businesses stay intact when it comes to converting money by the dollar. The exchange rate also has rules set in place to keep the chaos at a minimum. When something happens in our economy it looks like a stack of dominos that have just fallen. Everyone and everything will be affected by it. “Exchange rate has factors like the interest rate, economic growth, and relative inflation rates(Pettinger,2020).” If anyone of these factors would decrease or increase it would have some kind of effect on the exchange rate. For example, let’s say my clothing business has increase sales and now I am becoming more competitive with other brands. There will be a higher demand for my product which would cause an increase in the dollar value. Now if sales are not good and they start to decrease then this will cause a decrease in value for my product. Exchange rates work similarly.

    Right now, at my job, our customers who live in Nigeria are experiencing an increase in the exchange rate. This means it is costing our customers more money than usual to import cars into their country. The exchange rate for Nigeria is at its highest, and because of this, our customers are shipping less. This then will cause a decrease in our sales. Sometimes it can be things that are happening in the other countries that can affect our profit in the U.S. Just like any other business International business has its ups and downs as well.

    With all this in mind, the real question is does interest rate differential predict exchange rates? Before we can answer this question, we must know the difference between interest and interest rate differentials. “According to Brown University interest rate is the sum charged by a lender to a borrower for the use of assets, expressed as a percentage of a principal(Brown University).” An interest rate differential is when you weigh the interest rates between two interests that are similar that are interest-bearing assets. When interest rates are high in a country it means that country’s currency or money values is at a high than a country that may have a lower interest rate. So, the interest could have an impact on the exchange rate for that country, but that doesn’t mean it determines or pick the rates. For example, Nigeria went through an exchange rate change due to the economy reliant on oil. This would cause a change in rate due to the drop in oil. The decrease in oil supply for this country is what changed the rate. Now that they have less to no oil their value has gone down. In this cause interest rate differential may or may not matter due to the country having a change in the economy. I believe it comes down to what kind of economic events and other factors is going on with the country at the time.


    Brown University. Understanding Interest | Loan Office. (n.d.).

    2021•Nigeria, J. 19th, Games, D., Thomas, D., Ngila, F., Thomas, D., Kedem, S., & Magazine, A. B. (2021, July 20). Nigerian businesses groan as naira devaluation bites economy. African Business.

    Pettinger, T. (2020, March 10). Factors that influence the exchange rate. Economics Help.

    3-Hi Professor and classmates,

    To begin with, Exchange rates are determine based on multiple factors. For example, one county can fixed or flexible exchange rates depending on their fiscal or monetary policies. Fixed exchange rates are put in place because a government is requiring the country to follow restrictive monetary and fiscal policies. On the other hand, this can create economic disasters like increase unemployment rates and slow down economic growth. Although fixed rate can help decrease inflation rate. In addition to, governments utilize fixed exchange rates to balance their government spending and foreign exchange reserves.

    Moreover, when a country wants to reduce risk with their currency, they utilize a floating exchange rate system where a government pegs its currency with another country. For example, a country A will set their exchange rates with the U.S dollar since the US has great tracking record and over 80% of the world uses dollars for trading purposes. In addition to, supply and demand of goods and services can dictate a flexible exchange rate of a country. For example, the exchange rate pass-through technique utilizes the purchasing power party to calculate a country exchange rate.

    According to Christy, we have other factors that affects exchange rates like money supply. Government official will have access to their monetary cash on hand, which it influences both inflation and exchange rates. Thus, the money supply is kept on the country’s central bank. A few things to watch are how much money is in circulation because it can cause inflation, and it can determine how much worth is the country’s currency worth.


    Eiteman, D. (2020). Multinational business Finance, Global Edition. Pearson Education Limited.

    Lowry , C. (2021, August 23). How to calculate exchange rates: Blog: Western union. Blog | Western Union.


    Nova Southeastern University

    2 Responses:

    1-Six Sigma is a method of quality control of processes that helps avoid errors in the production and distribution therefore make them more efficient in the supply chain. Six Sigma helps eliminate processes that are unnecessary which results in reduced waste and production and distribution costs. Six Sigma has three different approaches: Increase customer satisfaction, reduce cycle times, and reduce failures (Shokri, 2017).

    Just in time in supply chain is focused on reducing delay time and costs. In addition to perfecting material ordering times with the goal of having only the necessary materials in inventory at the time they are needed. This helps reduce inventory costs and have a good understanding of supply chain needs. JIT’s main goal is to offer the customer what they need at the time they need it at the lowest possible cost making it an effective tool for supply chain managers (Vokurka, & Lummus, 2000).

    Pareto is a rule composed by 80/20 that mean states that “80% of the outputs come from 20% of the inputs”. For the supply chain, this rule can be applied to different aspects of the business such as 80% of a company’s total shipments going to 20% of its shipping locations. We can also apply them to the fact that 80% of the profits come from 20% of their products or that 80% of the shipments they will make come from 20% of the consumers. This is not an accurate prediction of what is happening in companies but it is very close to the reality they experience in their results (Mohamed Syazwan, Abu Bakar, & Ai, 2015).

    Total quality management (TQM) is the method used to detect errors in processes, reduce or eliminate them. In this way, it helps to streamline the management of the supply chain. It also helps to improve the experience of consumers and strengthens the training of workers so that they are in constant training (Vanichchinchai, 2014).


    Mohamed Syazwan, A. T., Abu Bakar, A. H., & Ai, C. T. (2015). Critical success factors of supply chain management: A literature survey and pareto analysis. EuroMed Journal of Business, 10(2), 234-263. doi:

    Shokri, A. (2017). Quantitative analysis of six sigma, lean and lean six sigma research publications in last two decades. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 34(5), 598-625. doi:

    Vanichchinchai, A. (2014). Supply chain management, supply performance and total quality management: An organizational characteristic analysis. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(2), 126-148. doi:

    Vokurka, R. J., & Lummus, R. R. (2000). The role of just-in-time in supply chain management. International Journal of Logistics Management, 11(1), 89-98. doi:

    2-Quality control approaches such as Lean and Six Sigma improve the efficiency and quality of global supply networks’ production and delivery. For example, lean Six Sigma reduces inefficient processes and errors, resulting in lower costs and less resource waste for businesses (Gershon & Rajashekharaiah, 2011).

    By optimizing the timeliness of ordering supplies, the just-in-time supply chain attempts to decrease timing delays and costs (García-Alcaraz et al., 2019). The objective is to have no more — and no fewer — supplies on hand than you require at the time. This simplifies procedures, lowers storage costs, and requires a company to understand its supply chain thoroughly.

    Any unexpected increases in customer demand are mitigated by safety stock in supply chain systems other than JIT (García-Alcaraz et al., 2019). Safety stocks also protect against manufacturing failures, quality difficulties, and other unanticipated issues of this nature. In JIT, on the other hand, the company tries to synchronize its activities to the point where additional safety supplies aren’t required.

    The Pareto Principle teaches you that most outcomes arise from a small number of inputs (Baek, Singh & Winer, 2017). If you’re aware of this

    Concentrate on compensating the 20% of employees who provide 80% of the results.

    20% of defects are responsible for 80% of crashes: Prioritize resolving these issues.

    20% of consumers are responsible for 80% of revenue: Concentrate on ensuring that these consumers are satisfied.

    The list goes on and on. The key is to recognize that you may frequently focus your efforts on the 20% that makes a significant impact rather than the 80% that doesn’t.

    There is a declining marginal benefit in economic terms. This is due to the rule of diminishing returns, which states that each additional hour of labor, each new person, adds less “oomph” to the final output. So by the end, you’ve spent a significant amount of time on tiny things.

    The goal is to put in the work required to obtain the greatest bang for your buck, generally in the first 20% (or 10%, or 30%, depending on the specific amount) (Baek, Singh & Winer, 2017). It may be preferable to acquire five quick prototypes rather than one finished product during the planning stage.

    Total quality management (TQM) is the process of identifying and minimizing or eliminating production mistakes, simplifying supply chain management, enhancing customer experience, and ensuring that personnel is adequately trained (Everard & Hardjono, 2019).

    Enterprise process management, often known as business process management, is a strategy for systematically organizing and implementing all of an organization’s processes (Samuel & Mishra, 2017). This connects them with the aims of the business and maximizes integration across various roles and functions.


    Baek, J. K., Singh, V., & Winer, R. S. (2017). The pareto rule for frequently purchased packaged goods: An empirical generalization. Marketing Letters, 28(4), 491-507. doi:

    Everard, v. K., & Hardjono, T. W. (2019). Twenty-first century total quality management: The emergence paradigm. TQM Journal, 31(2), 150-166. doi:

    García-Alcaraz, J. L., Realyvasquez-Vargas, A., García-Alcaraz, P., Mercedes Pérez de, l. P., Julio Blanco Fernández, & Emilio Jiménez Macias. (2019). Effects of human factors and lean techniques on just in time benefits. Sustainability, 11(7) doi:

    Gershon, M., & Rajashekharaiah, J. (2011). Double LEAN six sigma – A structure for applying lean six sigma. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 12(6), 26-31. Retrieved from…

    Samuel, F. W., & Mishra, D. (2017). Big data integration with business processes: A literature review. Business Process Management Journal, 23(3), 477-492. doi:

    3-The design, deployment, and maintenance of organizational structures required for diverse business processes are all part of total quality management. It focuses on a long-term plan aimed at maintaining and improving existing quality standards. It may also be characterized as a cultural endeavor in which an organization develops a culture of collaboration between different functional areas to improve overall quality. Six Sigma enables businesses to minimize operating costs by eliminating errors, improving cycle times, and reducing costs. It differs from typical cost-cutting methods in terms of price and efficiency. The goal is to find and eliminate costs that do not benefit customers, such as wasted costs. JIT is a strategy for increasing efficiency and minimizing waste by acquiring items only as they are required in the manufacturing process, hence lowering inventory costs. In other terms, it also refers to an inventory management strategy with the goal of having enough inventory on hand to meet demand, but not so much that you must stockpile extra products. A just-in-time information retrieval agent (JITIR agent) is software that proactively retrieves and delivers information in a readily accessible, yet nonintrusive manner based on a person’s local environment. The Remembrance Agent, Margin Notes, and Jimminy are the three JITIR agents described in this work. The Pareto Principle (also known as the 80-20 rule) argues that around 80% of the consequences are caused by 20% of the causes for numerous phenomena. The Pareto Principle and its importance in real-world situations are discussed in this article, as well as certain mathematical models related to it and the concepts of the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Dunford, Su, and Tamang. (2014). Due to severe conflicts between business process mapping and the Enterprise System method, any firm that employs business process mapping should avoid considering any usage of an Enterprise System and any of the components of an Enterprise System.

    Dunford. R., Su, Q., and Tamang, E. (2014) ‘The Pareto Principle’, The Plymouth Student Scientist, 7(1), p. 140-148.

    B. Rhodes, “Using physical context for just-in-time information retrieval”, Computers IEEE Transactions on, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1011-1014, 2003


    Nova Southeastern University

    I’m trying to learn for my Literature class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

    Most weeks, one of the four discussion board groups must submit synthesis posts. (We do not have a synthesis post due at the end of the first week, and the final synthesis post in the course is optional.) A synthesis post asks you to pull together some of the readings and discussions from the prior week. In each synthesis post, you must quote and respond to at least two reading posts by your classmates that have come in since the prior synthesis post. Whenever quoting a passage from another post, do not include the whole original message in your post: always cut everything except the passage you want to quote. You should also quote from the readings from the prior week at least once, and the quotation should not be the same as one that your peers whom you have quoted took for their reading posts. Your goal is to make use of the class lectures and discussions to answer questions and respond to points people had made in their reading posts — whether that means building on their ideas to support your own, slightly modifying the original idea, or rebutting it — and to draw some tentative conclusions. Synthesis posts should be between 425 and 475 words long, not including quotations, and they are due by midnight on Saturday (in other words, at the end of the day). Again, excessive length is a detriment, not a sign of superior effort.

    Unlike reading response posts, synthesis posts do not have prompts. They have their own discussion board forums, and you should post your synthesis as reply to my initial post.

    As with reading response posts, the key to synthesis posts is working effectively with quotations. Do not begin a paragraph (let alone the whole post) by quoting a peer; that’s like being a tennis player who refuses to serve. If you start out a paragraph with something like “Ashley says,” you surrender both your initiative and your authority. Again, start by establishing a point you want to make or an issue you want to explore. Then, quote the text and your peers in any way that helps you make your point. Always set up and comment on each quotation, which means you should never present two quotations back-to-back. Also, do not quote your peer quoting the text: quote peers for their ideas, not their evidence.

    Your goal is to engage with your peer’s response thoughtfully. That means you cannot simply agree with it. You must respond in one of the following three ways:

    1) Extension: This means you think your peer makes a valid point, and you build on their comment logically as the foundation for deeper analysis of the same issue. Think of this as mentally inserting the phrase (note that I say mentally — you shouldn’t write this) if this is true, then I would go further and argue that between the quotation and your own commentary. You then should bring in more textual evidence to support your point.

    2) Application: This means that you think your peer makes a valid point, and you use their comment as a way to analyze a different portion of the text. You may find a similarity or a difference between the passage you quote and the one your peer quoted; either way, you still agree with your peer, because any differences result from the passage itself.

    3) Rebuttal: This means you find a flaw in your peer’s analysis. This flaw may result from a problem in the logic of the analysis itself, or it may result from your peer misreading or ignoring evidence from the reading that contradicts their point. In either case, keep your criticism focused on the analysis, not the writer, and never indicate that you disagree with the quotation in the set-up for it — always let your reader read the quotation without prejudice.

    Following is an example of an excellent synthesis post. Again, the post is not particularly long (432 words plus quotations). In this case, note how well the writer weaves together quotations form the text and from peers. Note also that the writer does not merely agree or disagree with what others in the class have written, but builds on the other posts in both cases. Finally, this post is well-written: grammatically correct, of course, but also concise, with some graceful turns of phrase, and correctly formatted quotations:

    Subject: C4 Synthesis: Nature as a Therapeutic Agent

    When initially reading Frankenstein, I was primarily concerned with the effects of Percy Shelley’s additions to Mary’s manuscript. Percy’s changes show why this novel is a product of the Romantic movement. The various roles nature plays in the book, especially the role of therapeutic agent, are key to this understanding and provide insight on Romanticism’s theoretical foundations.

    Throughout my reading, I noticed how the book depicts nature as separated from society and man-made institutions, creating a powerfully destructive dichotomy. Failure to understand this dichotomy resulted in some confusion over Victor Frankenstein’s character. From the beginning, the Shelleys represent Nature as both spiritual and moral, so Frankenstein — whose entire project defies the natural processes of both birth and death — may well seem unlikeable. Moreover, his desire for his creation to look up to him as to a god strikes some readers as unseemly: “This desire to be blessed by his creation suggests he may be too human, too needy, to be taking on the role of Creator” ([name redacted] A8). However, what makes Frankenstein seem narcissistic is not any fault of his own character, but rather his indoctrination by human institutions: educational, scientific, and religious. Deep into his studies, Frankenstein says, “Learn from me, if not by my precepts at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge and how much happier that man is who believes his native town the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow” (76-77). The fantasy he has of himself as a divine Creator to his Creation is not far from the Old Testament and YHVH’s continual demands for worship. Thus, Frankenstein is not being portrayed as an inherently unsympathetic character, but as someone whose essentially noble self has been twisted by society’s corrupt institutions.

    Institutions are also to blame for Frankenstein’s inaction at Justine’s trial. Several people expressed frustration that he does nothing to save an innocent woman for whom he expresses great affection. [Name redacted] points out that this is not what we expect from a Romantic hero in the Byronic tradition: “If Percy Shelley and Lord Byron are indeed the inspirations for Victor Frankenstein, then what does this inaction say about Mary’s opinion of them? Both men write passionately about injustice, yet faced with the opportunity to prevent it, Frankenstein does nothing” (D7). In this instance, once again, Shelley portrays human institutions, in this case the judicial system, as the problem; Frankenstein is helpless. And in reality, Byron’s and Shelley’s dreams of bringing in a new and better age came to nought, at least during their lifetimes. Regardless, the point is that society and man-made institutions are the antagonist, not Frankenstein.

    The dichotomy between nature and man-made institutions is tangible throughout the novel and gives further credence to this point. From a plot standpoint, when Frankenstein is in Geneva, he becomes overzealous in his studies to the point where he becomes sick. [Name redacted] briefly discusses Frankenstein’s relationship to nature: “Instead of going to nature of answers, he seeks to control it and tame it, to make it a man-made creation” (A8) Once again, it’s not that Frankenstein seeks to control nature, but that society seeks to control nature, and furthermore nature’s effect on Frankenstein and nature is therapeutic. After his troubles in Ingolstadt, Frankenstein says, “By degrees this calm and heavenly scene restored me, and I continued my journey towards Geneva” (99). Whenever Frankenstein is on the verge of losing it, an escape from civilization and into nature heals him.

    [name redacted]

    So why is this a superb post?

    1) The author starts out with an observation of his or her own before quoting and responding to the initial poster. This helps ensure that this post will demonstrate original thought and not just be a matter of agreeing or disagreeing with someone.

    2) As with the reading response post example, the author uses quotations effectively by setting them up in a substantive way that integrates them with the overall argument and by commenting on them at length. In this case, she respectfully rebuts the original poster and uses evidence from the text to support that rebuttal. (Note that this post quotes the reading response post example above.

    3) This author also writes well.


    Nova Southeastern University


    Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that primarily is used to treat anxiety, however it is used to treat seizure disorders as well as other conditions. Medications like clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), and lorazepam (Ativan) are all medications that belong in the benzodiazepine class. Benzodiazepines as first line treatment of seizures, particularly midazolam and lorazepam, are frequently underdosed throughout the United States (Sathe & Coles, 2021).

    Clonazepam (Klonopin) Clonazepam is one of the 1, 4-benzodiazepine drugs commonly used in epilepsy management, and recommended for second-line adjunctive treatment for various types of seizures (Song, 2020). It works by enhancing the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors in the brain. GABA-A aids in reducing the excitability of neurons, which will have a calming effect on the brain. It is used to treat seizures, anxiety, or panic disorders. This medication is rapidly absorbed after oral administration; the bioavailability is about 90%. Plasma concentrations of clonazepam are reached within 1-4 hours. Klonopin is metabolized in the liver, and it will take between 1 – 2 days for half of the dose to leave your system.

    Diazepam (Valium) like clonazepam, this medication works by enhancing the activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. Diazepam is used to treat alcohol withdrawal symptoms, muscle spasms, stiffness, and anxiety disorders. When used in combination with other medications it can also treat seizures. After oral administration of this medication more than 90% is absorbed and the peak plasma concentration is reached at about 1-1.5 hours. If the medication is administered with a moderately fat meal, absorption will be delayed and decreased. Diazepam is metabolized in the liver to its active metabolite and is then excreted in the urine.

    Lorazepam (Ativan) Ativan is commonly used to treat anxiety, insomnia, or sleep difficulty that is due to anxiety, stress, status epilepticus, and as a medication that they give right before anesthesia. This medication acts on the brain and nerves to produce a calming effect. It enhances the effects of GABA, which helps to terminate a seizure (Kamdar & Hussein, 2020). Ativan can be taken by mouth with or without food. The dosage will be based on your medical conditions, age, and response to treatment. It is metabolized by the liver to inactive metabolites and is considered to be the best tolerated by patients with liver disease. It is then eliminated mainly by the kidneys. It is readily absorbed with an absolute bioavailability of 90%.


    Kamdar, H. A., & Hussein, O. (2020). Lorazepam timing for acute convulsive seizure control (LoTASC). Seizure, 83, 41–47.

    Sathe, A. G., & Coles, L. D. (2021). Patterns of benzodiazepine underdosing in the Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial. Epilepsia, 62(3), 795–806.

    Song, L. (2020). Clonazepam add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Published.